The One Hundred Thirteenth United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, from January 3, 2013, to January 3, 2015, during the fifth and sixth years of Barack Obama's presidency. It was composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives based on the results of the 2012 Senate elections and the 2012 House elections. The seats in the House were apportioned based on the 2010 United States Census. It first met in Washington, D.C. on January 3, 2013, and it ended on January 3, 2015. Senators elected to regular terms in 2008 were in the last two years of those terms during this Congress.
The Senate had a Democratic majority, while the House had a Republican majority. Widespread public dissatisfaction with the institution increased over its second year, and some commentators have ranked it among the worst in United States congressional history, until 2017. According to a Gallup Poll released in August 2014, the 113th Congress had the highest disapproval rating of any Congress since 1974, when data first started being collected: 83% of Americans surveyed said that they disapproved of the job Congress was doing, while only 13% said that they approved. In October 2013, during the government shutdown, this decreased to 10% approval according to several polls.
Main articles: 2013 in the United States, 2014 in the United States, and 2015 in the United States
- January 3, 2013: Election of Speaker. Incumbent Speaker John Boehner was re-elected despite the largest number of defections in the vote for speaker since at least 1991.
- January 4, 2013: Joint session to count the Electoral College votes for the 2012 presidential election.
- January 20–21, 2013: Second inauguration of PresidentBarack Obama and Vice PresidentJoe Biden. The terms began January 20, but because that was a Sunday, the Joint Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies scheduled the inauguration ceremony for the next day.
- February 12, 2013: Joint session to hear the 2013 State of the Union Address.
- March 6–7, 2013: Senator Rand Paul led a filibuster of the nomination of John O. Brennan for Director of the Central Intelligence Agency with a 12-hour, 52-minute speech.
- June 5, 2013: The first media reports of Edward Snowden's surveillance disclosures surfaced in the media.
- June 25, 2013: The Supreme Court struck down section 4(b) of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 in Shelby County v. Holder, ending the need for some counties and states to receive "preclearance" from the Justice Department before changing election laws.
- June 26, 2013: The Supreme Court struck down section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act in United States v. Windsor, forcing the federal government to acknowledge same-sex marriages granted under the laws of states.
- July 16, 2013: The Senate reached a deal to allow some presidential nominations to come to a vote, avoiding the "Nuclear option" for filibuster reform.
- September 24–25, 2013: Senator Ted Cruz delivered a 21-hour, 19-minute speech, one of the longest in Senate history, in opposition to the Affordable Care Act. Cruz's speech was not a filibuster, as it delayed no vote.
- October 1–17, 2013: The United States federal government was shut down as most routine operations were curtailed after Congress failed to enact legislation appropriating funds for fiscal year 2014, or a continuing resolution for the interim authorization of appropriations for fiscal year 2014.
- October 3, 2013: United States Capitol shooting incident
- November 21, 2013: In a 52–48 vote, the Senate ended the use of the filibuster on all executive branch nominees, as well as on most judicial nominees. The filibuster remained in place for Supreme Court nominees and for legislation.
- November 4, 2014: United States elections, 2014, including United States Senate elections, 2014 and United States House of Representatives elections, 2014.
Main article: Acts of the 113th United States Congress
- March 7, 2013: Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013, Pub.L. 113–4
- March 13, 2013: Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Reauthorization Act of 2013, Pub.L. 113–5
- March 26, 2013: 2013 United States federal budget (as Consolidated and Further Continuing Appropriations Act, 2013), Pub.L. 113–6
- June 3, 2013: Stolen Valor Act of 2013, Pub.L. 113–12
- August 9, 2013: Hydropower Regulatory Efficiency Act of 2013, Pub.L. 113–23
- August 9, 2013: Bipartisan Student Loan Certainty Act of 2013, Pub.L. 113–28
- September 30, 2013: Pay Our Military Act, Pub.L. 113–39
- November 27, 2013: Drug Quality and Security Act, Pub.L. 113–54
- December 26, 2013: National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2014, Pub.L. 113–66
- January 17, 2014: Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014, Pub.L. 113–76
- February 7, 2014: Agricultural Act of 2014, Pub.L. 113–79
- March 21, 2014: Homeowner Flood Insurance Affordability Act of 2014, Pub.L. 113–89
- April 3, 2014: Gabriella Miller Kids First Research Act, Pub.L. 113–94
- April 3, 2014: Support for the Sovereignty, Integrity, Democracy, and Economic Stability of Ukraine Act of 2014, Pub.L. 113–95
- May 9, 2014: Digital Accountability and Transparency Act (DATA), Pub.L. 113–101
- May 20, 2014: Kilah Davenport Child Protection Act, Pub.L. 113–104
- June 10, 2014: Water Resources Reform and Development Act, Pub.L. 113–121
- July 23, 2014: Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, Pub.L. 113–128
- August 1, 2014: Unlocking Consumer Choice and Wireless Competition Act, Pub.L. 113–144
- August 7, 2014: Veterans' Access to Care through Choice, Accountability, and Transparency Act of 2014, Pub.L. 113–146
- September 29, 2014: Preventing Sex Trafficking and Strengthening Families Act, Pub.L. 113–183
- October 6, 2014: IMPACT Act of 2014, Pub.L. 113–185
- November 26, 2014: Presidential and Federal Records Act Amendments of 2014, Pub.L. 113–187
- November 26, 2014: Government Reports Elimination Act of 2014, Pub.L. 113–188
- December 18, 2014: Death in Custody Reporting Act of 2013, Pub.L. 113–242
- December 18, 2014: Transportation Security Acquisition Reform Act, Pub.L. 113–245
- December 18, 2014: American Savings Promotion Act, Pub.L. 113–251
- December 18, 2014: Credit Union Share Insurance Fund Parity Act, Pub.L. 113–252
- December 18, 2014: EPS Service Parts Act of 2014Pub.L. 113–263
- December 18, 2014: Venezuela Defense of Human Rights and Civil Society Act of 2014, Pub.L. 113–278
- December 18, 2014: Insurance Capital Standards Clarification Act of 2014, Pub.L. 113–279
Main article: List of bills in the 113th United States Congress
Fiscal year 2014
Fiscal year 2014 runs from October 1, 2013, to September 30, 2014.
Fiscal year 2015
Main article: 2015 United States federal appropriations
Fiscal year 2015 runs from October 1, 2014, to September 20, 2015.
- Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2015 (H.R. 4800) - considered in the House on June 11, 2014. The bill would appropriate $20.9 billion.
- Commerce, Justice, Science, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2015 (H.R. 4660) - passed the House on May 30, 2014. The total amount of money appropriated in the bill was $51.2 billion, approximately $400 million less than fiscal year 2014.
- Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2015 - considered in the House on June 18, 2014. The bill would provide funding of approximately $491 billion.
- Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2015 (H.R. 4923; 113th Congress) (H.R. 4923) - The bill would appropriate $34 billion to the United States Department of Energy, the United States Army Corps of Engineers, and related agencies.
- Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2015 (H.R. 4487) - passed in the House on May 1, 2014. The bill would appropriate $3.3 billion to the legislative branch for FY 2015.
- Military Construction and Veterans Affairs and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2015 (H.R. 4486) - passed the House on April 30, 2014. The total amount appropriated by the introduced version of the bill is $71.5 billion.
- Transportation, Housing and Urban Development, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2015 (H.R. 4745 or "THUD") - passed the House on June 10, 2014. The bill would appropriate $17 billion to the Department of Transportation and $40.3 billion to the Department of Housing and Urban Development.
- Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section, below.
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
|End of previous Congress||51||2||47||100||0|
|June 3, 2013||52||99||1|
|June 6, 2013||46||100||0|
|October 31, 2013||53||45|
|February 6, 2014||52||99||1|
|February 9, 2014||53||100||0|
|Final voting share||7001550000000000000♠55%||7001450000000000000♠45%|
|Beginning of the next Congress||44||2||54||100||0|
House of Representatives
(Shading indicates majority caucus)
|End of previous Congress||191||240||431||4|
|January 22, 2013||232||432||3|
|April 9, 2013||201||433||2|
|May 7, 2013||233||434||1|
|June 4, 2013||234||435||0|
|July 15, 2013||200||434||1|
|August 2, 2013||233||433||2|
|September 26, 2013||232||432||3|
|October 18, 2013||231||431||4|
|November 16, 2013||232||432||3|
|December 10, 2013||201||433||2|
|December 17, 2013||233||434||1|
|January 6, 2014||200||433||2|
|January 27, 2014||232||432||3|
|February 18, 2014||199||431||4|
|March 11, 2014||233||432||3|
|June 24, 2014||234||433||2|
|August 18, 2014||233||432||3|
|November 4, 2014||201||234||435||0|
|Final voting share||7001462000000000000♠46.2%||7001538000000000000♠53.8%|
|Beginning of the next Congress||188||247||435||0|
Section contents:Senate: Majority (D), Minority (R) • House: Majority (R), Minority (D)
Majority (Democratic) leadership
Minority (Republican) leadership
House of Representatives
Majority (Republican) leadership
- Majority Leader: Eric Cantor, until August 1, 2014
- Majority Whip: Kevin McCarthy, until August 1, 2014
- Majority Chief Deputy Whip: Peter Roskam, until August 1, 2014
- Conference Chair: Cathy McMorris Rodgers
- Conference Vice-Chair: Lynn Jenkins
- Conference Secretary: Virginia Foxx
- Campaign Committee Chairman: Greg Walden
- Policy Committee Chairman: James Lankford
- Campaign Committee Deputy Chairman: Lynn Westmoreland
Minority (Democratic) leadership
- Minority Leader: Nancy Pelosi
- Minority Whip: Steny Hoyer
- Assistant Democratic Leader: Jim Clyburn
- Caucus Chairman: Xavier Becerra
- Caucus Vice-Chairman: Joseph Crowley
- Campaign Committee Chairman: Steve Israel
- Steering and Policy Committee Co-Chairs: Rosa DeLauro (Steering) and Rob Andrews (Policy, until February 18, 2014); George Miller (Policy, from March 24, 2014)
- Organization, Study, and Review Chairman: Mike Capuano
- Senior Chief Deputy Minority Whip: John Lewis
- Chief Deputy Minority Whips: Terri Sewell, Keith Ellison, Jim Matheson, Ben R. Luján, Jan Schakowsky, Diana DeGette, G. K. Butterfield, Debbie Wasserman Schultz, Peter Welch
Senators are listed by state, and the numbers refer to their Senate classes, In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring re-election in 2014; Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring re-election in 2016; and Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring re-election in 2018.
2 Independents, caucusing with Democrats
Speaker of the House
The 113th Congress convened on January 3. Republicans retain control of the House of Representatives by a majority of 234 to 201, a smaller margin than in the 112th Congress. Representative John Boehner (R-OH) was reelected Speaker of the House. Representatives Eric Cantor (R-VA) and Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) will continue to serve as Majority and Minority Leader, respectively.
Democrats continue to be the majority in the Senate, with 53 Democrats and 2 Independents who will caucus with the Democrats. This is still short of the 60 votes needed to withstand a Republican filibuster. However, the Senate is expected to consider possible changes to the filibuster process early in the new Congress. Senator Harry Reid (D-NV) will again serve as Majority Leader with Senator Mitch McConnell (R-KY) continuing as Minority Leader.
While House and Senate committee assignments have not been fully finalized, some posts have already been announced.
The House Committee on Financial Services, formerly chaired by Representative Spencer Bachus (R-AL), is now chaired by Representative Jeb Hensarling (R-TX). Representative Maxine Waters (D-CA) is now Ranking Member of the full committee, a position held by former Representative Barney Frank (D-MA) in the 112th Congress. Representative Gary Miller (R-CA) will serve as Committee Vice Chair, and Representative Lynn Westmoreland (R-GA) holds the new position of Committee Whip. Representative Randy Neugebauer (R-TX) is now Chair of the Subcommittee on Insurance, Housing and Community Opportunity, a position held in the 112th Congress by former Representative Judy Biggert (R-IL).
New Republicans to the Committee on Financial Services are Representatives Garland Barr (R-KY), Tom Cotton (R-AR), Randy Hultgren (R-IL), Mick Mulvaney (R-SC), Robert Pittenger (R-NC), Dennis Ross (R-FL), Marlin Stutzman (R-IN) and Ann Wagner (R-MO).
The House Committee on Appropriations will continue to be chaired by Representative Harold Rogers (R-KY). Representative Nita Lowey (D-NY) is now Ranking Member, a position held in the 112th Congress by former Representative Norm Dicks (D-WA). Representative Tom Latham (R-IA) will continue to serve as Chair of the Subcommittee on Transportation, Housing and Urban Development.
Republicans new to the House Committee on Appropriations are Representatives Jaime Herrera Beutler (R-WA), Chuck Fleischmann (R-TN), Jeff Fortenberry (R-NE), David Joyce (R-OH), Tom Rooney (R-FL) and David Valadao (R-CA).
The House Committee on Ways and Means will continue to be chaired by Representative Dave Camp (R-MI), and Representative Sander Levin (D-MI) will continue to serve as Ranking Member. Republicans new to the committee are Representatives Tim Griffin (R-AR), Mike Kelly (R-PA) and Todd Young (R-IN).
Senate Democrats announced committee leadership positions and membership prior to the adjournment of the 112th Congress (see Memo, 12/14/12). These positions were finalized when the 113th Congress convened on January 3, with the notable change of Senator Barbara Mikulski (R-MD) now serving as Chair of the Senate Committee on Appropriations, after the death of former Chair Daniel Inouye (D-HI). Also on January 3, Senate Republicans formally announced Republican committee assignments.
Senator Thad Cochran (R-MS) will continue as Ranking Member of the Senate Committee on Appropriations. Republicans newly assigned to the committee are Senators Mike Johanns (R-NE) and John Boozman (R-AR), joining new Democratic members Senators Tom Udall (D-NM), Jeanne Shaheen (D-NH) and Jeff Merkley (D-OR).
It is expected that Senator Mike Crapo (R-ID) will take over the position of Ranking Member of the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs from Senator Richard Shelby (R-AL), who has reached the end of his term as Ranking Member. However, this shift had not been finalized as of this writing. Republicans newly assigned to the Committee on Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs are Senators Tom Coburn (R-OK) and Dean Heller (R-NV).
As previously reported, Senator Tim Johnson (D-SD) will continue to chair the Banking Committee. New Democratic members are Senators Joe Manchin (D-WV), Elizabeth Warren (D-MA) and Heidi Heitkamp (D-ND).
The Senate Committee on Finance will continue to be chaired by Senator Max Baucus (D-MT), and Senator Orrin Hatch (R-UT) retains his role as Ranking Member. Republicans newly assigned to the committee are Senators Johnny Isakson (R-GA), Rob Portman (R-OH) and Patrick Toomey (R-PA). Democrats newly assigned to the committee are Senators Sherrod Brown (D-OH) and Michael Bennet (D-CO).
Full information on Senate Committee assignments will be available at http://1.usa.gov/XrTlzW.
Full information on House Committee assignments will be available at http://1.usa.gov/XrTovD.