Ms 08 Tma Sem I 2013 Solved Assignment 1423

The presently disclosed subject matter claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. Nos. 61/695,776, filed Aug. 31, 2012, and 61/696,787, filed Sep. 4, 2012, the disclosure of each of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

This invention was made with government support under Grant Nos. AI033993, AI020963, and CA134060 awarded by National Institutes of Health. The government has certain rights in the invention.

The Sequence Listing associated with the instant disclosure has been electronically submitted to the United States Patent and Trademark Office as International Receiving Office as a 782 kilobyte ASCII text file created on Sep. 3, 2013 and entitled “3062_2_PCT_ST25.txt”. The Sequence Listing submitted via EFS-Web is hereby incorporated by reference in its entirety.

The presently disclosed subject matter relates to the area of diagnostics and therapeutics. In particular, it relates to immunotherapies and diagnostics in the context of proliferative diseases such as nut not limited to cancer.

The mammalian immune system has evolved a variety of mechanisms to protect the host from cancerous cells. An important component of this response is mediated by cells referred to as T cells. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) are specialized T cells that primarily function by recognizing and killing cancerous cells or infected cells, but they can also function by secreting soluble molecules referred to as cytokines that can mediate a variety of effects on the immune system. T helper cells primarily function by recognizing antigen on specialized antigen presenting cells, and in turn secreting cytokines that activate B cells, T cells, and macrophages. A variety of evidence suggests that immunotherapy designed to stimulate a tumor-specific CTL response would be effective in controlling cancer. For example, it has been shown that human CTL recognize sarcomas (Slovin et al., 1986), renal cell carcinomas (Schendel et al., 1993), colorectal carcinomas (Jacob et al., 1997), ovarian carcinomas (Peoples et al., 1993), pancreatic carcinomas (Peiper et al., 1997), squamous tumors of the head and neck (Yasumura et al., 1993), and squamous carcinomas of the lung (Slingluff et al., 1994; Yoshino et al., 1994). The largest number of reports of human tumor-reactive CTLs, however, has concerned melanomas (Boon et al., 1994). The ability of tumor-specific CTL to mediate tumor regression, in both human (Parmiani et al., 2002; Weber, 2002) and animal models, suggests that methods directed at increasing CTL activity would likely have a beneficial effect with respect to tumor treatment.

Melanoma, or skin cancer, is a disease that is diagnosed in approximately 54,200 persons per year. Conventional therapy for the disease includes surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. In spite of these approaches to treatment, approximately 7,600 individuals die in the United States every year due to melanoma. Overall, the 5-year survival rate for the disease is 88%. The survival rate drops, however, in more advanced stages of the disease with only about 50% of Stage III patients and 20-30% of Stage IV patients surviving past five years. In patients where the melanoma has metastasized to distant sites, the 5-year survival dips to only 12%. Clearly, there is a population of melanoma patients that is in need of better treatment options. More recently, in an attempt to decrease the number of deaths attributed to melanoma, immunotherapy has been added to the arsenal of treatments used against the disease.

Dramatic regressions of melanoma have been induced with several types of immune therapies, including high-dose interleukin-2 and anti-CTLA4 antibody, which is FDA approved therapies for advanced melanoma, and adoptive T cell therapy, with reported objective response rates of 17%, 13%, and 51%, respectively, and with complete response (CR) rates in the range of 4-7%. Results with these therapies provide proof-of-principle for the therapeutic potential of immune therapy in melanoma. Unfortunately, the toxicities for all three therapies limit participant eligibility; so less toxic immune therapies with vaccines are being explored as alternative treatment options. This is especially true in the adjuvant setting where the only FDA-approved adjuvant therapy for patients with resected high-risk melanoma is high-dose, systemic interferon alpha. However, the most recent pooled analysis of interferon alpha therapy highlights the questionable survival advantage even of that therapy, for patients in the adjuvant setting. Thus, there is a critical need for additional new therapies for melanoma, both for adjuvant therapy of high-risk resected melanoma and for therapy of patients who are not candidates for, or fail, other therapies in the setting of advanced disease.

In order for CTL to kill or secrete cytokines in response to a cancer cell, the CTL must first recognize the cancer cell (Townsend & Bodmer, 1989). This process involves the interaction of the T cell receptor, located on the surface of the CTL, with what is generically referred to as an MHC-peptide complex which is located on the surface of the cancerous cell. MHC (major histocompatibility-complex)-encoded molecules have been subdivided into two types, and are referred to as class I and class II MHC-encoded molecules. In the human immune system, MHC molecules are referred to as human leukocyte antigens (HLA). Within the MHC complex, located on chromosome six, are three different loci that encode for class I MHC molecules. MHC molecules encoded at these loci are referred to as HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C. The genes that can be encoded at each of these loci are extremely polymorphic, and thus, different individuals within the population express different class I MHC molecules on the surface of their cells. HLA-A1, HLA-A2, HLA-A3, HLA-B7, HLA-B14, HLA-B27, and HLA-B44 are examples of different class I MHC molecules that can be expressed from these loci.

The peptides which associate with the MHC molecules can either be derived from proteins made within the cell, in which case they typically associate with class I MHC molecules (Rock & Goldberg, 1999); or they can be derived from proteins which are acquired from outside of the cell, in which case they typically associate with class II MHC molecules (Watts, 1997). The peptides that evoke a cancer-specific CTL response most typically associate with class I MHC molecules. The peptides themselves are typically nine amino acids in length, but can vary from a minimum length of eight amino acids to a maximum of fourteen amino acids in length. Tumor antigens may also bind to class II MHC molecules on antigen presenting cells and provoke a T helper cell response. The peptides that bind to class II MHC molecules are generally twelve to nineteen amino acids in length, but can be as short as ten amino acids and as long as thirty amino acids.

The process by which intact proteins are degraded into peptides is referred to as antigen processing. Two major pathways of antigen processing occur within cells (Rock & Goldberg, 1999). One pathway, which is largely restricted to professional antigen presenting cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells, degrades proteins that are typically phagocytosed or endocytosed into the cell. Peptides derived from this pathway can be presented on either class I or to class II MHC molecules. A second pathway of antigen processing is present in essentially all cells of the body. This second pathway primarily degrades proteins that are made within the cells, and the peptides derived from this pathway primarily bind to class I MHC molecules. Antigen processing by this latter pathway involves polypeptide synthesis and proteolysis in the cytoplasm, followed by transport of peptides to the plasma membrane for presentation. These peptides, initially being transported into the endoplasmic reticulum of the cell, become associated with newly synthesized class I MHC molecules and the resulting complexes are then transported to the cell surface. Peptides derived from membrane and secreted proteins have also been identified. In some cases these peptides correspond to the signal sequence of the proteins which is cleaved from the protein by the signal peptidase. In other cases, it is thought that some fraction of the membrane and secreted proteins are transported from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm where processing subsequently occurs. Once bound to the class I MHC molecule, the peptides are recognized by antigen-specific receptors on CTL. Several methods have been developed to identify the peptides recognized by CTL, each method of which relies on the ability of a CTL to recognize and kill only those cells expressing the appropriate class I MHC molecule with the peptide bound to it. Mere expression of the class I MHC molecule is insufficient to trigger the CTL to kill the target cell if the antigenic peptide is not bound to the class I MHC molecule. Such peptides can be derived from a non-self source, such as a pathogen (for example, following the infection of a cell by a bacterium or a virus) or from a self-derived protein within a cell, such as a cancerous cell. The tumor antigens from which the peptides are derived can broadly be categorized as differentiation antigens, cancer/testis antigens, mutated gene products, widely expressed proteins, viral antigens and most recently, phosphopeptides derived from dysregulated signal transduction pathways. (Zarling et al., 2006).

Adoptive T cell therapy of melanoma is described in two recent publications: Dudley et al., 2008 and Rosenberg & Dudley, 2009. For adoptive T cell therapy, late stage metastatic melanoma patients are treated as if they were undergoing an organ transplant operation. Tumor is resected and cytotoxic T cells that have infiltrated the tumor are harvested and exposed to a particular class I peptide antigen (MART-1). Those that recognize this antigen are then allowed to expand until the total number of MART-1 specific cells reach 100 billion. The patient receives whole body irradiation and chemotherapy to wipe out 98% of his/her immune system. The MART specific T cells are then given back to the patient and circulate throughout the body looking for tumor. In the most recent clinical trial, tumors in 72% of the patients showed objective responses with this therapy at all sites of metastasis including lymph nodes, bone, lung, liver, and brain. Twenty-eight percent of the patients had complete remission of the disease.

Immunization with melanoma-derived, class I or class II MHC-encoded molecule associated peptides, or with a precursor polypeptide or protein that contains the peptide, or with a gene that encodes a polypeptide or protein containing the peptide, are forms of immunotherapy that can be employed in the treatment of melanoma. Identification of the immunogens is a necessary first step in the formulation of the appropriate immunotherapeutic agent or agents. Although a large number of tumor-associated peptide antigens recognized by tumor reactive CTL have been identified, there are few examples of antigens that are derived from proteins that are selectively expressed on a broad array of tumors, as well as associated with cellular proliferation and/or transformation.

Attractive candidates for this type of antigen are peptides derived from proteins that are differentially phosphorylated on serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), and tyrosine (Tyr). See Zarling et al., 2000. Due to the increased and dysregulated phosphorylation of cellular proteins in transformed cells as compared to normal cells, tumors are likely to present a unique subset of phosphorylated peptides on the cell surface that are available for recognition by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL). Presently, there is no way to predict which protein phosphorylation sites in a cell will be unique to tumors, survive the antigen processing pathway, and be presented to the immune system in the context of 8-14 residue phosphopeptides bound to class I MHC molecules.

Thirty-six phosphopeptides were disclosed as presented in association with HLA A*0201 on cancer cells. (see Table 1 of Zarling et al., 2006). Parent proteins for four of these peptides—beta-catenin, insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2), tensin-3, and Jun-C/D—are associated with cytoplasmic signaling pathways and cellular transformation.

While both normal and cancer cells lines express the parent proteins, only the three cancer lines express phosphorylated class I peptide sequences within IRS-2 and beta-catenin, respectively. Mice expressing a transgenic recombinant human A*0201 MHC molecule were immunized with a synthetic class I phosphopeptides from IRS-2 and beta-catenin that were pulsed onto activated bone-marrow derived dendritic cells. Cytotoxic T cells were generated that recognized all three cancer cell lines but not the control JY cell line (i.e., an Epstein-Barr virus transformed B lymphoblastoid cell line).

β-catenin, a protein involved in cell adhesion and a downstream mediator of Wnt signaling, has been implicated in tumor development and progression (Takemaru et al., 2008). An HLA-A*0201-restricted phosphorylated peptide derived from β-catenin and (residues 30-39) that is presented by melanoma cell lines was described by (Zarling et al., 2006). Mutations in this region of β-catenin or in “destruction complex” proteins diminish phosphorylation and degradation of β-catenin and thereby stabilize the protein (Yost et al., 1996). Once stabilized, β-catenin translocates into the nucleus by an unknown mechanism where it associates with TCF/Lef proteins to activate transcription of genes such as cyclin D1 (Tetsu & McCormick, 1999), c-myc (He et al., 1998), and metalloproteases (Crawford et al., 1999; Takahashi et al., 2002), which promote tumorigenesis and metastasis.

While mutations in β-catenin or the destruction complex proteins are involved in the development of gastrointestinal cancers (Morin et al., 1997; Ogasawara et al., 2006), they are rarely found in human melanoma samples (Rimm et al., 1999; Omholt et al., 2001; Worm et al., 2004) and cell lines (Pollock & Hayward, 2002; Worm et al., 2004). Additionally, the expression of β-catenin in melanoma cells diminishes with disease progression (Sanders et al., 1999; Kageshita et al., 2001; Maelandsmo et al., 2003; Krengel et al., 2004; Hoek et al., 2006; Pecina-Slaus et al., 2007). Despite the reduced expression, nuclear β-catenin has been observed in melanoma samples and may be transcriptionally active in promoting invasive behavior of melanoma cells (Rimm et al., 1999; Bachmann et al., 2005; Chien et al., 2009; Arozarena et al., 2011).

Degradation of β-catenin is dependent on phosphorylation of the protein at S33, S37, and T41 by GSK-3β (Kimelman & Xu, 2006). Thus detection of this phosphorylated form of the protein in cells indicates that β-catenin has been marked for degradation. Phosphorylated β-catenin has been detected in metastatic melanomas and to a lesser extent, primary melanomas (Kielhorn et al., 2003) but the relative abundances of the different forms of phosphorylated β-catenin (S33/S37/T41, S37/T41, S33/S37, T41, S37, or S33 only) were not distinguished.

Until the present disclosure, no studies have examined MHC class-I-bound phosphopeptide displayed on primary human tumor samples, and there is only limited evidence of a human immune response against class-I restricted phosphopeptides.

This Summary lists several embodiments of the presently disclosed subject matter, and in many cases lists variations and permutations of these embodiments. This Summary is merely exemplary of the numerous and varied embodiments. Mention of one or more representative features of a given embodiment is likewise exemplary. Such an embodiment can typically exist with or without the feature(s) mentioned; likewise, those features can be applied to other embodiments of the presently disclosed subject matter, whether listed in this Summary or not. To avoid excessive repetition, this Summary does not list or suggest all possible combinations of such features.

In some embodiments, the presently disclosed subject matter provides an isolated and purified target peptide that consists of between 8 and 50 contiguous amino acid residues derived from a native human protein. In some embodiments, the target peptide is a peptide that comprises a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 1-2167 and 2374. In some embodiments, the target peptide is a phosphopeptide that comprises a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 1-2163 in which at least one serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue in the selected sequence is phosphorylated with a hydrolyzable or non-hydrolyzable phosphate group. In some embodiments, the peptide is an comprises an O-GlcNAcylated peptide that comprises an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 2163-2167 and 2374. In some embodiments, contiguous amino acids adjacent to the selected sequence in the phosphopeptide are selected from the adjacent residues in the native human protein. In some embodiments, when the sequence is selected from SEQ ID NO: 393-465, the phosphopeptide is phosphorylated with a non-hydrolyzable phosphate group.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments methods for immunizing a mammal to diminish the risk of, the growth of, or the invasiveness of a melanoma. In some embodiments, a composition is administered to the mammal that activates CD8+ T cells. In some embodiments, the composition comprises a phosphopeptide that consists of between 8 and 50 contiguous amino acid residues derived from a native human protein. In some embodiments, the target peptide is a peptide that comprises a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 1-2167 and 2374. In some embodiments, the target peptide is a phosphopeptide that comprises a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 1-2163 in which at least one serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue in the selected sequence is phosphorylated with a hydrolyzable or non-hydrolyzable phosphate group. In some embodiments, the peptide is an comprises an O-GlcNAcylated peptide that comprises an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 2163-2167 and 2374. In some embodiments, contiguous amino acids adjacent to the selected sequence in the phosphopeptide are selected from the adjacent residues in the native human protein. In some embodiments, when the sequence is selected from SEQ ID NO: 393-465, the phosphopeptide is phosphorylated with a non-hydrolyzable phosphate group.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments methods that can be used for monitoring, diagnosis, or prognosis. In some embodiments, a sample isolated from a patient is contacted with an antibody that specifically binds to a phosphopeptide. In some embodiments, the phosphopeptide consists of between 8 and 50 contiguous amino acid residues derived from a native human protein. In some embodiments, the target peptide is a peptide that comprises a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 1-2167 and 2374. In some embodiments, the target peptide is a phosphopeptide that comprises a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 1-2163 in which at least one serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue in the selected sequence is phosphorylated with a hydrolyzable or non-hydrolyzable phosphate group. In some embodiments, the peptide is an comprises an O-GlcNAcylated peptide that comprises an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 2163-2167 and 2374. In some embodiments, contiguous amino acids adjacent to the selected sequence in the phosphopeptide are selected from the adjacent residues in the native human protein. In some embodiments, the antibody does not bind to a peptide consisting of the same amino acid sequence but devoid of phosphorylation. In some embodiments, antibody bound to the sample is measured or detected.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments molecules that comprise an antigen-binding region of an antibody. In some embodiments, the molecule specifically binds to a phosphopeptide and does not bind to a peptide consisting of the same amino acid sequence but devoid of phosphorylation. In some embodiments, the phosphopeptide consists of between 8 and 50 contiguous amino acid residues derived from a native human protein. In some embodiments, the target peptide is a peptide that comprises a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 1-2167 and 2374. In some embodiments, the target peptide is a phosphopeptide that comprises a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 1-2163 in which at least one serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue in the selected sequence is phosphorylated with a hydrolyzable or non-hydrolyzable phosphate group. In some embodiments, the peptide is an comprises an O-GlcNAcylated peptide that comprises an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 2163-2167 and 2374. In some embodiments, contiguous amino acids adjacent to the selected sequence in the phosphopeptide are selected from the adjacent residues in the native human protein.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments kits for measuring a phosphoprotein that in some embodiments consists of between 8 and 50 contiguous amino acids. In some embodiments, the phosphoprotein comprises a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 1-2163 that includes a phosphorylated serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue. In some embodiments, the kit comprises a molecule comprising an antigen-binding region of an antibody, wherein the molecule specifically binds to the phosphoprotein and does not bind to a protein consisting of the same amino acid sequence but devoid of phosphorylation.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments methods that are useful for producing an immunotherapeutic agent or tool. In some embodiments of the presently disclosed methods, dendritic cells are contacted in vitro with an isolated phosphopeptide consisting of between 8 and 50 contiguous amino acids. In some embodiments, the target peptide is a peptide that comprises a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 1-2167 and 2374. In some embodiments, the target peptide is a phosphopeptide that comprises a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 1-2163 in which at least one serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue in the selected sequence is phosphorylated with a hydrolyzable or non-hydrolyzable phosphate group. In some embodiments, the peptide is an comprises an O-GlcNAcylated peptide that comprises an amino acid sequence selected from SEQ ID NOs: 2163-2167 and 2374. In some embodiments, the dendritic cells thereby become phosphopeptide-loaded. In some embodiments, when the sequence is selected from SEQ ID NO: 393-465, the phosphopeptide is phosphorylated with a non-hydrolyzable phosphate group. In some embodiments, the dendritic cells made by the presently disclosed methods provide in vitro compositions of dendritic cells, which in some embodiments are useful as immunotherapeutic agents.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments synthetic phosphopeptides. In some embodiments, the synthetic phosphopeptides comprise from 10-50 amino acid residues. In some embodiments, the synthetic phosphopeptides comprise the amino acid sequence RVAsPTSGVK (SEQ ID NO: 65) or the amino acid sequence RVAsPTSGVKR (SEQ ID NO: 66), wherein in some embodiments the serine residue at position 4 is phosphorylated with a hydrolyzable or nonhydrolyzable phosphate group, and wherein in some embodiments adjacent amino acid residues to the sequence are adjacent sequences in the human insulin substrate-2 (IRS-2) protein. In some embodiments, the phosphopeptide is useful for loading dendritic cells so that they present phosphopeptide on HLA-A*0301 molecules.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments isolated and purified phosphopeptides. In some embodiments, the isolated and purified phosphopeptides consist of between 8 and 50 contiguous amino acid residues derived from a native human protein. In some embodiments, the isolated nad purified phosphopeptides comprise a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO:1-2163, wherein at least one serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue in the selected sequence is phosphorylated with a hydrolyzable or non-hydrolyzable phosphate group, wherein in some embodiments the contiguous amino acids adjacent to the selected sequence in the phosphopeptide are the adjacent contiguous amino acid residues in the native human protein. In some embodiments, the phosphopeptides are substantially free of other peptides.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments compositions comprising the target peptides that are in some embodiments substantially free of human cells. In some embodiments, the compositions comprise an admixture with one or more distinct peptides. In some embodiments, the composition comprises melanoma-specific peptides or leukemia-specific peptides. In some embodiments, the composition comprises an immune adjuvant. In some embodiments, the composition is an admixture of target peptides, wherein a least one target peptide that binds to each of an HLA-A*0101, HLA-A*0301, HLA-B*4402, HLA-B*2705, and HLA-B*0702 molecule is present in the admixture. In some embodiments, the composition comprises at least one target peptide that binds to HLA-A*0201.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments compositions comprising a target peptide as disclosed herein in a complex with an HLA-A*0101, HLA-A*0301, HLA-B*4402, HLA-B*2705, HLA-B*1402, or HLA-B*0702 molecule. In some embodiments, the complex is a tetramer.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments methods for immunizing a mammal to diminish the risk of, the growth of, or the invasiveness of a proliferative disease such as cancer. In some embodiments, the presently disclosed methods comprise administering to the mammal a target peptide composition, whereby CD8+ T cells are activated be the phosphopeptide. In some embodiments, the phosphopeptide comprises at least 15 amino acid residues. In some embodiments, the presently disclosed methods further comprise administering TLR-ligand oligonucleotide-CpG. In some embodiments, at least two target peptides are administered that share a sequence of at least 6 amino acid residues. In some embodiments, the mammal is a transgenic non-human comprising a human HLA. In some embodiments, the mammal is a dog, cat, horse, or mouse. In some embodiments, the mammal has a melanoma. In some embodiments, the mammal has metastatic melanoma. In some embodiments, the mammal has an increased risk of developing a melanoma.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments methods for contacting a sample isolated from a patient with an antibody that specifically binds to the target peptide and does not bind to a peptide consisting of the same amino acid sequence but devoid of phosphorylation/O-GlcNAC moieties and measuring or detecting antibody bound to the sample. In some embodiments, the sample is tissue, blood, serum, plasma, lymph, urine, saliva, mucus, stool, or skin. In some embodiments, the sample is a biopsy sample from tumor or normal tissue. In some embodiments, the sample is from a lymph node.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments molecules comprising an antigen-binding region of an antibody, wherein the molecule specifically binds to the target peptide and does not bind to a peptide consisting of the same amino acid sequence but devoid of phosphorylation and/or O-GlcNAC moieties. In some embodiments, the antibody is a monoclonal antibody. In some embodiments, the molecule is a single chain variable region (ScFv).

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments kits for measuring a phosphoprotein, said phosphoprotein comprising a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO:1-2163 and including a phosphorylated serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue. In some embodiments, the presently disclosed kits comprise a molecule comprising an antigen-binding region of an antibody, wherein the molecule specifically binds to the target peptide and does not bind to a protein consisting of the same amino acid sequence but devoid of a phosphorylation/O-GlcNAC moiety. In some embodiments, the kit comprises an antibody that specifically binds to a portion of the molecule that is distinct from the antigen-binding region. In some embodiments, the kit further comprises a detectable label. In some embodiments, the kit further comprises a solid support on which binding complexes of the molecule and the target peptides can be captured.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments methods comprising contacting dendritic cells in vitro with an isolated phosphopeptide comprising between 8 and 50 contiguous amino acids comprising a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 1-2163, said phosphopeptide including at least one serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue that is phosphorylated, whereby the dendritic cells become phosphopeptide-loaded.

In some embodiments, the methods involve transfusing or injecting the phosphopeptide-loaded dendritic cells into a cancer patient, optionally a leukemia patient, wherein the sequence is selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 267, 269-270, 272-274, 276, 282-289, 291-298, 302-308, 310, 312-325, 327-328, 330-331, 333-334, 336-340, 342-352, 356, 358-361, 363, 366-368, 370-371, 374-375, 377-379, 382-383, 385-389, 391-392, 1529-1534, 1539-1544, 1549-1570, 1576-1578, 1594-1617, 1622-1627, 1634-1646, 1656-1680, 1684-1687, 1691-1735, 1739-1744, 1748-1754, 1758-1763, 1767-1784, 1788-1826, 1836-1842, 1846-1874, 1878-1885, 1892-1905, 1909-1915, 1922-1927, 1932-1940, 1947-1952, 1956-1971, 1975-1988. In some embodiments, the phosphopeptide-loaded dendritic cells with CD8+ T cells in vitro, whereby the CD8+ T cells are stimulated. In some embodiments, the methods involve transfusing the stimulated CD8+ T cells into a melanoma or leukemia patient. In some embodiments, the CD8+ T cells are autologous to the patient. In some embodiments, the CD8+ T cells are allogeneic to the patient. In some embodiments, the dendritic cells are contacted with a plurality of said isolated phosphopeptides. In some embodiments, the dendritic cells are contacted with a plurality of said isolated phosphopeptides which are linked by a spacer of 10-50 amino acid residues.

In some embodiments, the presently disclosed subject matter also provides in vitro compositions comprising dendritic cells. In some embodiments, the dendritic cells are loaded with a phosphopeptide consisting of between 8 and 14 contiguous amino acids comprising a sequence selected from SEQ ID NO: 1-2163, said phosphopeptide including at least one serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue that is phosphorylated. In some embodiments, the phosphopeptide comprises at least one amino acid residue that is not in its native human protein. In a further embodiment, the at least one amino acid residue is an optimal anchor residue for its corresponding HLA molecule. In some embodiments, the phosphopeptide is phosphorylated with a non-hydrolyzable phosphate group, which in some embodiments is a —CF2—PO3H group. In some embodiments, the phosphopeptide is phosphorylated with a non-hydrolyzable phosphate group that in some embodiments is a —CH2—PO3H group.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments synthetic phosphopeptides consisting of from 10-50 amino acid residues, comprising the sequence RVAsPTSGVK (SEQ ID NO: 65) or RVAsPTSGVKR (SEQ ID NO: 66), wherein the serine residue at position 4 is phosphorylated with a hydrolyzable or non-hydrolyzable phosphate group, and wherein adjacent amino acid residues to the sequence are adjacent sequences in human insulin substrate-2 (IRS-2) protein. In some embodiments, the composition comprises the synthetic phosphopeptide in a complex with A*0301.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments concatamers of at least two phosphopeptides that are linked by a spacer of 10-50 amino acid residues.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments compositions comprising at least three synthetic peptides which are exactly, about, or at least 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, or 15 or more amino acids long. In some embodiments, the first peptide comprises a sequence selected from the group consisting of selected from a group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 398, SEQ ID NO: 2000, SEQ ID NO: 2001, and SEQ ID NO: 2002 (BCAR3). In some embodiments, the second peptide comprises a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 427, SEQ ID NO: 2078, SEQ ID NO: 2079, SEQ ID NO: 2080, SEQ ID NO: 2081, SEQ ID NO: 2082, SEQ ID NO: 2083, and SEQ ID NO: 2084 (beta-catenin). In some embodiments, the third peptide comprises a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 418, SEQ ID NO: 2062, and SEQ ID NO: 2063 (IRS-2) wherein said composition has the ability to stimulate an immune response to said first second or third peptides. In some embodiments, the first peptide is SEQ ID NO: 398. In some embodiments, the second peptide is SEQ ID NO: 2080. In some embodiments, the third peptide is SEQ ID NO: 418. In some embodiments, at least one serine residue in any of the peptides is replaced with a homo-serine. In some embodiments, the composition comprises a non-hydrolyzable phosphate. In some embodiments, at least one of the peptides binds MHC class I at least 500% more tightly than its native counterpart. In some embodiments, at least one of the peptides is capable of eliciting more activated CD8+ T cells specific for MHC class I molecule complexed with the phosphopeptide of SEQ ID NO: 427 than a control composition comprising the same peptides except SEQ ID NO: 427 rather than SEQ ID NO: 2080. In some embodiments, the compositions are at least 100% more immunogenic than a control composition comprising the same peptides except SEQ ID NO: 427 rather than SEQ ID NO: 2080. In some embodiments, the compositions are capable of reducing tumor size in a NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγc−/− mouse by at least 30% compared to a control composition comprising the same peptides except SEQ ID NO: 427 rather than SEQ ID NO: 2080. In some embodiments, the compositions are immunologically suitable for at least 60% to 88% of melanoma patients. In some embodiments, the compositions comprise at least 5, 10, or 15 different peptides. In some embodiments, the compositions comprise a peptide capable of binding to an MHC class I molecule selected from the group consisting of HLA-A*0201, HLA-A*0101, HLA-A*0301, HLA-B*4402, HLA-B*0702, HLA-B*-2705, and HLA-B*1402. In some embodiments, the compositions comprise a peptide capable of binding to an MHC class I molecule selected from the group consisting of HLA-A*0101, HLA-A*0301, HLA-B*4402, HLA-B*0702, HLA-B*-2705, and HLA-B*1402. In some embodiments, the compositions comprise a peptide capable of binding to an HLA-A*0101 or an HLA-B*0702 MHC class I molecule.

In some embodiments, the compositions are capable of increasing the 5-year survival rate of malignant melanoma patients treated with the composition by at least 20 percent relative to average 5-year survival rates that could have been expected without treatment with the composition. In some embodiments, the compositions are capable of increasing the survival rate of malignant melanoma patients treated with the composition by at least 20 percent relative to a survival rate that could have been expected without treatment with the composition. In some embodiments, the compositions are capable of increasing the treatment response rate of malignant melanoma patients treated with the composition by at least 20 percent relative to a treatment rate that could have been expected without treatment with the composition. In some embodiments, the compositions are capable of increasing the overall median survival of patients of malignant melanoma patients treated with the composition by at least two months relative to an overall median survival that could have been expected without treatment with the composition.

In some embodiments, the compositions comprise at least one peptide derived from a MelanA (MART-I) polypeptide, a gp100 (Pmel 17) polypeptide, a tyrosinase polypeptide, a TRP-1 polypeptide, a TRP-2 polypeptide, a MAGE-1 polypeptide, a MAGE-3 polypeptide, a BAGE polypeptide, a GAGE-1 polypeptide, a GAGE-2 polypeptide, a p15(58) polypeptide, a CEA polypeptide, a RAGE polypeptide, an NY-ESO (LAGE) polypeptide, an SCP-1 polypeptide, a Hom/Mel-40 polypeptide, a PRAME polypeptide, a p53 polypeptide, an H-Ras polypeptide, a HER-2/neu polypeptide, a BCR-ABL polypeptide, an E2A-PRL polypeptide, an H4-RET polypeptide, an IGH-IGK polypeptide, an MYL-RAR polypeptide, an Epstein Barr virus antigen polypeptide, an EBNA polypeptide, a human papillomavirus (HPV) antigen E6 and/or E7 polypeptide, a TSP-180 polypeptide, a MAGE-4 polypeptide, a MAGE-5 polypeptide, a MAGE-6 polypeptide, a p185erbB2 polypeptide, a p180erbB-3 polypeptide, a c-met polypeptide, an nm-23H1 polypeptide, a PSA polypeptide, a TAG-72-4 polypeptide, a CA 19-9 polypeptide, a CA 72-4 polypeptide, a CAM 17.1 polypeptide, a NuMa polypeptide, a K-ras polypeptide, a β-Catenin polypeptide, a CDK4 polypeptide, a Mum-1 polypeptide, a p16 polypeptide, a TAGE polypeptide, a PSMA polypeptide, a PSCA polypeptide, a CT7 polypeptide, a telomerase polypeptide, a 43-9F polypeptide, a 5T4 polypeptide, a 791Tgp72 polypeptide, an α-fetoprotein polypeptide, a β-HCG polypeptide, a BCA225 polypeptide, a BTAA polypeptide, a CA 125 polypeptide, a CA 15-3 (CA 27.29\BCAA) polypeptide, a CA 195 polypeptide, a CA 242 polypeptide, a CA-50 polypeptide, a CAM43 polypeptide, a CD68\KP1 polypeptide, a CO-029 polypeptide, an FGF-5 polypeptide, a G250 polypeptide, a Ga733 (EpCAM) polypeptide, an HTgp-175 polypeptide, an M344 polypeptide, an MA-50 polypeptide, an MG7-Ag polypeptide, a MOV18 polypeptide, an NB/70K polypeptide, an NY-CO-1 polypeptide, a RCAS1 polypeptide, an SDCCAG16 polypeptide, a TA-90 (Mac-2 binding protein\cyclophilin C-associated protein) polypeptide, a TAAL6 polypeptide, a TAG72 polypeptide, a TLP polypeptide, and a TPS polypeptide.

In some embodiments, the compositions comprise an agent selected from the group consisting of a CTLA-4 antagonist, vermurafenib, ipilimumab, dacarbazine, IL-2, temozolomide, imatinib, gefitinib, erlotinib, sunitinib, tyrphostins and telatinib. In some embodiments, the compositions comprise dacarbazine, carmustine and tamoxifen. In some embodiments, the compositions comprise an adjuvant selected from the group consisting of montanide ISA-51 (Seppic, Inc., Fairfield, N.J., United States of America), QS-21 (Aquila Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Lexington, Mass., United States of America), tetanus helper peptides, GM-CSF, cyclophosamide, bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), corynbacterium parvum, levamisole, azimezone, isoprinisone, dinitrochlorobenezene (DNCB), keyhole limpet hemocyanins (KLH), Freunds adjuvant (complete and incomplete), mineral gels, aluminum hydroxide (Alum), lysolecithin, pluronic polyols, polyanions, peptides, oil emulsions, dinitrophenol, diphtheria toxin (DT).

In some embodiments, the presently disclosed subject matter also provides compositions for treating a proliferative disease. In some embodiments, the compositions comprise (i) a tetanus peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NOs. 2376 and 2377; and (ii) at least or about 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 synthetic target peptides, each of which is at least or about 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, or 15 amino acids long. In some embodiments, the at least or about 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 synthetic target peptide(s) is/are selected from the group consisting of (A) a first target peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 398, SEQ ID NO: 2000, SEQ ID NO: 2001, and SEQ ID NO: 2002; (B) a second target peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 418, SEQ ID NO: 2062, and SEQ ID NO: 2063; (C) a third target peptide comprising a sequence selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 427; SEQ ID NO: 2078, SEQ ID NO: 2079, SEQ ID NO: 2080, SEQ ID NO: 2081, SEQ ID NO: 2082, SEQ ID NO: 2083, and SEQ ID NO: 2084; (D) a fourth target peptide selected from the group consisting of SEQ ID NO: 396; and SEQ ID NO: 1996; and (E) a fifth target peptide from the group consisting of (SEQ ID NO: 426) and (SEQ ID NO: 2077), wherein the composition has the ability to stimulate a T cell-mediated immune response to the at least or about 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 synthetic target peptide(s); and further wherein the composition is capable of eliciting a memory T cell response to the at least or about 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 synthetic target peptide(s). In some embodiments, the first target peptide is SEQ ID NO: 398. In some embodiments, the second target peptide is SEQ ID NO: 2080. In some embodiments, the third target peptide is SEQ ID NO: 418. In some embodiments, at least one serine residue in any of the target peptides is replaced with a homoserine.

In some embodiments, the composition for treating a proliferative disease comprises a non-hydrolyzable phosphate.

In some embodiments of the composition for treating a proliferative disease, at least one of the target peptides binds a MHC class I molecule at least 500% more tightly than its native counterpart.

In some embodiments of the composition for treating a proliferative disease, at least one of the target peptides is capable of eliciting more activated CD8+ T cells specific for MHC class I molecule complexed with the phosphopeptide of SEQ ID NO: 427 than a control composition comprising the same target peptide(s) but wherein SEQ ID NO: 427 is present rather than SEQ ID NO: 2080. In some embodiments, the composition is at least 100% more immunogenic than a control composition comprising the same target peptide(s) but wherein SEQ ID NO: 427 is present in the composition rather than SEQ ID NO: 2080. In some embodiments, the composition is capable of reducing tumor size in a NOD/SCID/IL-2Rγc−/− mouse comprising transgenic T cells specific for human β-catenin phosphopeptides such as SEQ ID NO: 427, by at least 30% compared to a control composition comprising the same peptides wherein SEQ ID NO: 427 is present in the composition rather than SEQ ID NO: 2080. In some embodiments, the composition is immunologically suitable for at least 60 to 88% of melanoma patients.

In some embodiments, the composition for treating a proliferative disease comprises at least 5 different target peptides. In some embodiments, the composition for treating a proliferative disease comprises at least 10 different target peptides. In some embodiments, the composition for treating a proliferative disease comprises at least 15 different target peptides.

In some embodiments, the composition for treating a proliferative disease comprises a target peptide capable of binding to an MHC class I molecule selected from the group consisting of HLA-A*0201, HLA-A*0101, HLA-A*0301, HLA-B*4402, HLA-B*0702, HLA-B*-2705 and HLA-B*1402. In some embodiments, the composition for treating a proliferative disease comprises a target peptide capable of binding to an MHC class I molecule selected from the group consisting of HLA-A*0101, HLA-A*0301, HLA-B*4402, HLA-B*0702, HLA-B*-2705 and HLA-B*1402. In some embodiments, the composition for treating a proliferative disease comprises a target peptide capable of binding to an MHC class I molecule of the HLA-A*0201, HLA-A*0101 or HLA-B*0702 alleles.

In some embodiments, the composition for treating a proliferative disease is capable of increasing the 5-year survival rate of malignant melanoma patients treated with the composition by at least 20 percent relative to average 5-year survival rates that could have been expected without treatment with the composition. In some embodiments, the composition for treating a proliferative disease the composition is capable of increasing the survival rate of malignant melanoma patients treated with the composition by at least 20 percent relative to a survival rate that could have been expected without treatment with the composition. In some embodiments, the composition for treating a proliferative disease is capable of increasing the treatment response rate of malignant melanoma patients treated with the composition by at least 20 percent relative to a treatment rate that could have been expected without treatment with the composition. In some embodiments, the composition for treating a proliferative disease is capable of increasing the overall median survival of patients of malignant melanoma patients treated with the composition by at least two months relative to an overall median survival that could have been expected without treatment with the composition.

In some embodiments, the composition for treating a proliferative disease comprises at least one peptide derived from MelanA (MART-I), gp100 (Pmel 17), tyrosinase, TRP-1, TRP-2, MAGE-1, MAGE-3, BAGE, GAGE-1, GAGE-2, p15(58), CEA, RAGE, NY-ESO (LAGE), SCP-1, Hom/Mel-40, PRAME, p53, H-Ras, HER-2/neu, BCR-ABL, E2A-PRL, H4-RET, IGH-IGK, MYL-RAR, Epstein Barr virus antigens, EBNA, human papillomavirus (HPV) antigens E6 and E7, TSP-180, MAGE-4, MAGE-5, MAGE-6, p185erbB2, p180erbB-3, c-met, nm-23H1, PSA, TAG-72-4, CA 19-9, CA 72-4, CAM 17.1, NuMa, K-ras, β-Catenin, CDK4, Mum-1, p16, TAGE, PSMA, PSCA, CT7, telomerase, 43-9F, 5T4, 791Tgp72, alpha-fetoprotein, β-HCG, BCA225, BTAA, CA 125, CA 15-3 (CA 27.29\BCAA), CA 195, CA 242, CA-50, CAM43, CD68\KP1, CO-029, FGF-5, G250, Ga733 (EpCAM), HTgp-175, M344, MA-50, MG7-Ag, MOV18, NB/70K, NY-CO-1, RCAS1, SDCCAG16, TA-90 (Mac-2 binding protein\cyclophilin C-associated protein), TAAL6, TAG72, TLP and TPS. In some embodiments, the composition for treating a proliferative disease comprises an agent selected from the group consisting of a CTLA-4 antagonist, vermurafenib, ipilimumab, dacarbazine, IL-2, temozolomide, imatinib, gefitinib, erlotinib, sunitinib, tyrphostins, a PD-1 agonist and telatinib. In some embodiments, the composition for treating a proliferative disease further comprises darcarbazine, carmustine and tamoxifen.

In some embodiments, the composition for treating a proliferative disease comprises an adjuvant selected from the group consisting of montanide ISA-51 (Seppic, Inc.), QS-21 (Aquila Pharmaceuticals, Inc.), GM-CSF, cyclophosamide, bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), corynbacterium parvum, levamisole, azimezone, isoprinisone, dinitrochlorobenezene (DNCB), keyhole limpet hemocyanins (KLH), Freunds adjuvant (complete and incomplete), mineral gels, aluminum hydroxide (Alum), lysolecithin, pluronic polyols, polyanions, peptides, oil emulsions, dinitrophenol, diphtheria toxin (DT).

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments in vitro populations of dendritic cells comprising at least one of the aforementioned target peptide compositions.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments in vitro populations of CD8+ T cells capable of being activated upon being brought into contact with a population of dendritic cells, wherein the dendritic cells comprise at least one of the aforementioned target peptide compositions.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments an antibody or antibody-like molecule that specifically binds to any of the target peptides disclosed herein. In some embodiments, the presently disclosed antibody or antibody-like molecule specifically binds to both a first complex of MHC class I molecule and a peptide represented by SEQ ID NO: 2080 and a second complex of MHC class I molecule and a peptide represented by SEQ ID NO: 427; wherein the antibody or antibody-like molecule does not bind the same complexes containing an unphosphorylated version of SEQ ID NO: 2080 or SEQ ID NO: 427. In some embodiments, the antibody or antibody-like molecule is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily. In some embodiments, the antibody or antibody-like molecule comprises a binding member selected from the group consisting an Fab, Fab′, F(ab′)2, Fv, and a single-chain antibody. In some embodiments, the antibody or antibody-like molecule comprises a therapeutic agent selected from the group consisting of an alkylating agent, an antimetabolite, a mitotic inhibitor, a taxoid, a vinca alkaloid and an antibiotic. In some embodiments, the antibody or antibody-like molecule is a T cell receptor, optionally linked to a CD3 agonist.

The presently disclosed subject matter also provides in some embodiments an in vitro population of T cells transfected with mRNA encoding a T cell receptor that specifically binds to any of the target peptides disclosed herein.

Прошу меня извинить. К человеку в моем положении часто приходят с… ну, вы понимаете. - Да, мистер Клушар, конечно, понимаю. Это цена, которую приходится платить за известность.

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