Swachh Bharat Mission: Achievements and challenges
A common sight or practice in the countryside of a developing country is people going out of their homes to defecate in the open. Generally, toilets are not constructed within premises due to a number of reasons, i.e., defecating within the house is considered unholy; the practice pollutes the house; some households are either not in a position to construct and maintain hygienic toilets, or do not have sufficient space to construct; or water for cleansing is not available.
In settlements where some houses have toilets, the underground sewerage network is not available. Here, excreta are released in nearby open areas/drains/water bodies, or removed by manual scavengers.
Country-level data show India having the largest number of people defecating in the open and the proportion is decreasing at a very slow rate. Further, as per the Swachhta Status Report, 2016 released by the Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, and which draws upon data of Census and National Sample Survey, 52.1 percent rural, 7.5 percent urban population of India goes for open defecation.
The impact of defecating in nearby secluded open areas, bushes and water bodies (such as rivers, ponds) is severely felt on human health, productivity and environment.
In India, 117,000 children under five years of age die every year due to diarrhoea (this is about 22 percent of the global burden), 38 percent are stunted (do not meet potential growth, development, physically and mentally), 14 percent neo-natal deaths occur due to sepsis. Such problems are a result of inadequate access to safe drinking water, sanitation and hygiene, as well as an absence of infection prevention and control facilities. Any child not having access to adequate sanitation in early years faces health problems for the entire lifespan despite having proper food. Besides health risks, the life of girls and women is unsafe. Numerous incidents of rape and murder occur when females go out alone to urinate or defecate.
Such problems are preventable. Availability of adequate sanitation facilities and their usage by everyone can save lives, ensure nutrition, productivity, women’s security and dignity. For example, adequate sanitation can decrease the risk of stunting by 14 percent, and risk of severe stunting by 26 percent. This also attends to the problem of underweight, low height of children.
A recent initiative launched in India in 2014 to improve the situation of sanitation is the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Mission). The Mission aims to make India free from open defecation and achieve 100 percent scientific management of solid waste by 2 October 2019, said Mr. Parameswaran Iyer, Union Secretary in the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation. He was delivering the keynote address at the roundtable discussion on ‘Swachh Bharat Mission: Achievements and Challenges’ organised in Delhi on July 7.
The roundtable was chaired by Mr. Surendra Singh, Advisor, ORF and former Union Cabinet Secretary. Panel speakers included Mr. Nisheeth Kumar, Chief, Operations, Knowledge Links; Mr. Nicolas Osbert, Chief – Water, Sanitation and Hygiene, UNICEF; Mr. Samirendra Chatterjee, Hony. Executive President, Sulabh International Social Service Organisation and Mr. Subhash Gatade, Author.
According to Mr Iyer, work is underway on construction of household, community and public toilets, and achieving improvements in the collection, processing and disposal of solid waste. A study is also being conducted by the government, in collaboration with UNICEF, to assess household savings / losses based on the quality of sanitation infrastructure and services available in settlements. Further, an annual survey is being undertaken to assess the sanitary condition of settlements, which will form the basis for responding to their cleanliness requirements.
It is realised that behavioral changes in the society about healthy sanitation practices are needed to achieve the mission goals. Hence, emphasis is laid on conduct of awareness generation programs, and citizen engagement in the reform process.
The key element of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan particularly in the context of rural areas is a shift from open defecation (OD) to use of toilets by triggering behavioural change at community level. It is envisaged that this will enable communities to talk about OD and usage of toilets. Importance is also laid on doing multiple levels of verification and media reporting to ensure that toilets are being built properly and people continue to use toilets even after the open defecation free (ODF) targets are achieved.
To make this happen, the central ministry is supporting State governments by way of providing financial incentives for solid/liquid waste management (SLWM), toilet construction, information education and communication (IEC), technical assistance and capacity building. For example in Rajasthan, efforts are being made to improve sanitation coverage by engaging with state functionaries and civil society.
A Swachh Bharat Kosh (fund) has been created in the finance ministry that allows public sector, corporates, individuals to contribute funds, which are be utilised for various Swachh Bharat initiatives in the country. About INR 550 crores have been collected so far. Another initiative is Swachh Bharat Preraks, i.e., volunteers recruited by Tata Trusts for monitoring progress of activities at district level and thus accelerating efforts to achieve universal sanitation coverage.
Every government ministry has also developed Swachhta Action Plans that are funded mostly from their own budget for carrying out innovative activities for two years (2017-18, 2018-19). For example, agriculture ministry is focusing on cleaning of agricultural mandies. Highways ministry is building proper toilet facilities along highways at toll plazas. Similarly, the ministry of petroleum is doing the same at petrol stations.
Further, Swachh Iconic Places is yet another initiative undertaken to ensure adequate sanitation near iconic structures, such as the Golden Temple, Taj Mahal, temple at Tirupati, because of the large population visiting these sites.
Under another initiative, namely Swachh Swasth Sarvatra, launched in collaboration with the health ministry and with the help of UNICEF (which have developed the training curriculum), primary health centres are being sanitised by providing better facilities for cleaning, washing, etc. Also, along with the department of school education, toilets are being provided in government schools, and children are informed about the importance of hygiene and sanitation.
The Village Swachhta Index has also been developed which reflects aspects of ODF, SLWM, visual cleanliness, stagnant water, etc. Based on the prevailing sanitary conditions and improvements, panchayats have been asked to rank themselves on a three monthly basis on a scale of 0 to 10. The index is now available for 130,000 villages.
As reported by the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, since the launch of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan on 2 October 2014, the number of people in rural India practicing open defecation has come down from 550 million to 320 million, and the target is to make India ODF by 2 October 2019. Overall, rural areas in 5 states (Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Haryana, Sikkim and Kerala), 2 lakh + villages and 149 districts have been declared ODF. States with less than 50 percent sanitation coverage include Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Orissa.Numerous independent (NGO, private sector) and/or participatory (PPP) activities are also in operation.
Sulabh International Social Service Organisation, for example, has been in this field since the 1970s, said Samirendra Chatterjee of Sulabh. He said his organisation has built more than 1.5 million household toilets, about 20,000 toilets in schools, 8,500 public toilets on a pay and use basis. Importance is given to both IEC for convincing people, and building and maintaining toilets. Their twin-pit pour flush low cost toilet has helped in addressing the issue of manual handling (manual scavenging) of excreta.
Sulabh also works for the decomposition of human waste, which is made pathogen free, and then used as a bio-fertiliser in agricultural fields. A bio-digester has also been developed which decomposes human waste in a public toilet and converts it into methane that can be used for cooking, lighting, heating during winters. The facility (three bio digesters) is also available in public toilets constructed at Sai Baba temple in Nashik, where about 40-50,000 pilgrims use the toilets every day. These facilities (twin pit toilets and bio-digesters) are especially useful at places where sewer systems are not available. Sulabh’s model is such that it is self-sustainable and does not depend on external funds.
The UNICEF has been making a noteworthy contribution, said Nicolas Osbert of UNICEF. The agency works in 15 States covering 80 percent of the rural population. It believes that behavioural changes in society about healthy sanitation practices can come if the community is empowered. Thus, UNICEF assists villagers in recognising their problems, and using their knowledge to find effective solutions. Similar activities are pursued in healthcare centres, schools, aanganwadi centres, so that good habits are adopted by everyone on sanitation, toilet usage and handwashing. Capacity building programmes are also conducted in 130 districts for ensuring better planning and implementation of the budget.
To accomplish the sanitation goals, several institutions are working with the Ministry, namely UNICEF, World Bank, BMGF, Tata Trusts, several NGOs, such as Water Aid. Coordination among the institutions is important to avoid duplication of efforts. The UNICEF performs this role.
If the goal of making India free from open defecation were to be achieved, attention would have to be paid to the following concerns:
- Maintaining ODF status is important after a village, block or district is declared ODF. Generally, it so happens that once it is declared, there is no pressure on the district administration to do any activity because the goal has been achieved. Also, many persons would tend to return to the old practice of open defecation, said Nisheeth Kumar of Knowledge Links. To make ODF sustainable, monitoring / spot-checking is required for at least one year after ODF status is achieved.
- Motivating volunteers to check the condition of sanitation, and offering them good incentives is necessary.
- For behavioural change of the society, a trained workforce is needed that can trigger communities. This involves taking the community through a participatory process of self-analysis where people are informed about the ill effects of inadequate sanitation – how it can adversely affect human life if proper facilities are not used.
- To address the issue of over/under reporting of government set targets, verification of facts on the ground is extremely important, said Mr Surendra Singh.
- Another problem is the presence of open ponds (water pools) in rural and semi-urban areas along road corridors. The ponds are used by people, livestock for various purposes. The poor quality of water in the ponds gives rise to diseases.
- Despite a ban on manual scavenging, it continues at various places in the country, said Mr Subhash Gatade. Unofficial figures reveal presence of 13 lakh manual scavengers; official figures are about two lakh. The dalit community is mainly engaged in this work, and not much attention is being paid towards reforming their lives. At some places, scheduled caste students are forced to clean toilets in schools. Technology can play a key role in addressing this issue, however it is not being used at most places.
- The working conditions of sewer workers are dangerous and hazardous. Every year about 22,000 workers die while cleaning sewers.
- Governance practices showing good results should be identified, documented and replicated.
- Equity in planning is needed. There are big pockets inhabited by SC, ST communities (living in forests and are hard to reach) that are often left behind due to planning deficiencies. Besides, many persons are also left behind from among the beneficiary community. UNICEF is trying to identify such groups so that these have access to adequate sanitation.
- Proper facilities for disposal of excreta should be created. People begin to use toilets but the faecal material goes untreated which harms the environment.
- Other usage-related challenges include: tackling cultural and mind-set issues, providing water in rural areas, addressing the problem of small and dingy toilets, stigma associated with pit-emptying, and making-men use toilets.
This report is written by Dr. Rumi Aijaz, Senior Fellow, Observer Research Foundation, New Delhi.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a cleanliness drive aimed to cover 4,041 statutory cities and towns all over India in order to clean the streets, roads and other infrastructure. Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a cleanliness campaign run by the government of India and initiated by the Honourable Prime Minister, Narendra Modi. It is a most important topic which our kids and students must know and be aware of this mission. It is a general topic which students are generally given in their schools to write or say something on Swachh Bharat or Swachh Bharat Abhiyan. We have provided below some simply written essay on Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in order to make your kids gets participated in the essay writing competition. You can select any Swachh Bharat Abhiyan essay given below:
Essay on Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Essay 1 (100 words)
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is also called as the Clean India Mission or Clean India drive or Swachh Bharat Campaign. It is a national level campaign run by the Indian Government to cover all the backward statutory towns to make them clean. This campaign involves the construction of latrines, promoting sanitation programmes in the rural areas, cleaning streets, roads and changing the infrastructure of the country to lead the country ahead. This campaign was officially launched by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi on 145th birth anniversary of the Mahatma Gandhi on 2nd of October in 2014 at Rajghat, New Delhi.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Essay 2 (150 words)
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a Swachh Bharat mission led by the government of India to make India a clean India. This campaign was launched officially by the government of India on 145th birthday anniversary of the great person, Mahatma Gandhi on 2nd of October, 2014. It was launched at the Rajghat, New Delhi (cremation of Mahatma Gandhi). The government of India has aimed to make India a clean India by 2nd of October 2019 (means 150th birth anniversary of the Mahatma Gandhi) through this campaign.
It is a politics free campaign and inspired by the patriotism. It is launched as a responsibility of the each and every Indian citizen to make this country a Swachh country. This campaign has initiated people globally towards the cleanliness. Teachers and students of the school are joining this “Clean India Campaign” very actively with great fervour and joy. Under this campaign, another cleanliness initiative has been started by the UP CM, Yogi Adityanath in March 2017. He has banned chewing paan, gutka and other tobacco products in the government offices all over UP.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Essay 3 (200 words)
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a campaign launched by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi as a nationwide cleanliness campaign. It is implemented to fulfill the vision and mission of clean India a day. It was launched especially on the birth anniversary of the Mahatma Gandhi as he was dreamed and very keen to make this country a clean country. He had tried for clean India in his time by motivating people through his campaigns and slogans however could not be true because of the partial involvement of the people of India.
But after years, Swachh Bharat Mission is again started by the government of India to make the dream of clean India come true in next five years till 150th birthday anniversary of the Mahatma Gandhi. It was started in 2014 on 2nd of October on the 145th birth anniversary of the mahatma Gandhi. It is big challenge for all the citizens of India. It is only possible if each and every person living in India would understand this campaign their own responsibility and try to meet hands together to make it a successful mission. It is initiated and promoted by the famous Indian personalities to spread this mission as an awareness programme all through the India. In order to ensure cleanliness, UP CM, Yogi Adityanath, has banned chewing paan, gutka and other tobacco products in the offices all over UP in March 2017.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Essay 4 (250 words)
Swachh Bharat Mission or Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a campaign run by the government of India as a massive mass movement to initiate the theme of cleanliness all through the India. This campaign was launched in seeking the way to create a Clean India target by 2019, 2nd of October means 150th birthday anniversary of the Mahatma Gandhi. The father of nation, Mahatma Gandhi was dreamed to make India a clean India and always put his hard efforts towards swachhta in India. This is the reason, why Swachh Bharat Abhiyan was launched on 2nd of October (the birthday of the Mahatma Gandhi). To complete the vision of the father of the nation, Indian government has decided to launch this campaign. In March 2017, UP CM Yogi Adityanath has also banned chewing paan and gutka to ensure cleanliness in UP government offices.
The aim of the mission is to cover all the rural and urban areas of the country to present this country as an ideal country before the world. The mission has targeted aims like eliminating the open defecation, converting insanitary toilets into pour flush toilets, eradicating manual scavenging, complete disposal and reuse of solid and liquid wastes, bringing behavioural changes to people and motivate health practices, spreading cleanliness awareness among people, strengthening the cleanliness systems in the urban and rural areas as well as creating user friendly environment for all private sectors interested for investing in India for cleanliness maintenance.
This mission has an interesting theme of inviting nine new people by each and every involved people in the campaign and continuing this chain until the each and every citizen of India gets involved in this campaign.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Essay 5 (300 words)
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a nationwide cleanliness campaign run by the government of India and initiated by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi on 2nd of October in 2014 on 145th birthday anniversary of the Mahatma Gandhi. This campaign has been launched to fulfill the aim of cleanliness all over the India. The Prime Minister has requested the people of India to involve in the Swachh Bharat Mission and promote others to do the same for leading our country as a best and clean country of the world. This campaign was first initiated by the Narendra Modi himself by cleaning the road on the way going to launch the campaign.
The campaign of Swachh Bharat is a biggest ever cleanliness drive of the India during the launch of which around 3 million government employees and students from schools and colleges were participated. On the day of launch, Prime Minister has nominated the names of nine personalities of India to initiate the campaign in their own areas and own decided dates as well as promote the campaign to common public. He also had requested to all nine personalities to invite other nine people from their own end individually to participate in this event as well as continue this chain of inviting nine people until the message reach to each and every Indian people.
He also requested that every Indian should take this campaign as a challenge and try his/her best to make this campaign a successful campaign ever. The chain of nine people is like a branching of the tree. He requested common people to involve in this event and upload the video or images of cleanliness over internet on the various social media websites like Facebook, Twitter, etc so that other people may get promoted and motivated to do the same in their own area. In this way India can be a clean country.
In the continuation of this mission, in March 2017, UP CM Yogi Adityanath has banned chewing paan, gutka and other tobacco products all over UP to ensure cleanliness in the government official buildings.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Essay 6 (400 words)
The father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi had said that, “Sanitation is more important than Independence” during his time before the independence of India. He was well aware of the bad and unclean situation of the India. He had emphasized the people of India a lot about the cleanliness and sanitation as well as its implementation in the daily lives. However, it was not so effective and failed because of the incomplete participation of people. After many years of independence of India, a most effective campaign of cleanliness is launched to call people for their active participation and complete the mission of cleanliness.
The President of India, Pranab Mukherjee has said in June 2014 while addressing the Parliament that, “For ensuring hygiene, waste management and sanitation across the nation a Swachh Bharat Mission will be launched. This will be our tribute to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary to be celebrated in the year 2019”. In order to fulfill the vision of Mahatma Gandhi and make India an ideal country all over the world, the Prime Minister of India has initiated a campaign called Swachh Bharat Abhiyan on the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi (2nd of October 2014). This campaign has the target of completion of mission till 2019 means 150th birthday anniversary of the Mahatma Gandhi.
Through this campaign the government of India would solve the sanitation problems by enhancing the waste management techniques. Clean India movement is completely associated with the economic strength of the country. The birth date of the Mahatma Gandhi is targeted in both, the launch and completion of the mission. The basic goals behind launching the Swachh Bharat Mission are to make the country full of sanitation facilities as well as eliminate all the unhealthy practices of people in daily routines. The first cleanliness drive in India was started on 25th of September in 2014 and first initiated by the Prime Minister, Narendra Modi by cleaning the road.
The completion of this mission would indirectly draw the attention of business investors in India, enhance the GDP growth, draw tourists attention from all over the world, bring variety of sources of employment, reduce health costs, reduce death rate, and reduce lethal disease rate and many more. Clean India would bring more tourists and enhance its economical condition. The Prime Minister of India has requested to every Indian to devote their 100 hours per year for the cleanliness in India which is very sufficient to make this country a clean country by 2019. Swachh Bharat cess is also started to get some fund for this campaign. Everyone has to pay extra .5% tax (50 paise per 100 rupee) on all the services in India.
UP CM Yogi Adityanath has also started a cleanliness drive in 2017 in Uttar Pradesh to ensure cleanliness in the official buildings. According to this, he has banned eating paan, gutka and other tobacco products in the government offices.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Essay 7 (500 words)
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a Clean India drive and Mission launched as a national campaign by the Indian Government in order to covering the 4041 statutory towns aiming maintained cleanliness of streets, roads and infrastructure of the country. Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi has officially launched this mission on 2nd of October (the birth anniversary of the Mahatma Gandhi) in 2014 at the Rajghat, New Delhi (cremation of Bapu). While launching the event Prime Minister himself had cleaned the road. It is the biggest cleanliness drive ever in India when approximately 3 million government employees including students from schools and colleges took part in the cleanliness activities.
On the day of launch of the event PM himself has nominated the name of nine people to participate in the cleanliness drive in their own areas. Schools and colleges have participated in the event by organizing many cleanliness activities according to their own themes. Students of India participated in this event. PM had also requested to all those nine nominees to call another nine people separately to participate in this cleanliness drive as well as continue the chain of calling nine people by each and every participated candidate of the mission until the message reach to the every Indian in every corner of the country to make it a national mission.
This mission aimed to join each and every Indian people from all walks of life by making the structure of branching of a tree. Swachh Bharat mission aimed to construct individual sanitary latrines for household purposes for the people living under poverty line, converting dry latrines into low-cost sanitary latrines, provide facility of hand pumping, safe and secure bathing, set up sanitary marts, construct drains, disposal of solid and liquid wastes, enhance health and education awareness, provide household and environmental sanitation facilities and many more.
Earlier many awareness programmes (such as Total Sanitation Campaign, Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan, etc) about the environmental sanitation and personal cleanliness were launched by the Indian government however could not be so effective to make India a clean India. The main objectives of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan are removing the trend of open defecation, changing insanitary toilets into pour flush toilets, removal of manual scavenging, proper disposal of solid and liquid wastes, bring behavioral changes among people, enhance awareness about sanitation, facilitating the participation of private sectors towards cleanliness facilities.
First nine nominated people by the PM of this abhiyan are Salman Khan, Anil Ambani, Kamal Hassan, comedian Kapil Sharma, Priyanka Chopra, Baba Ramdev, Sachin Tendulkar, Shashi Tharoor and team of Taarak Mehta Ka Ooltah Chashmah (a most famous TV series). Indian film actor Aamir Khan was invited to come on the date of launching of the mission. There are various brand ambassadors who have been chosen by the PM to initiate and promote the abhiyan of Swachh Bharat in various fields. He had also nominated some other people (Akhilesh Yadav, Swami Rambhadracharya, Mohammad Kaif, Manoj Tiwari, Deviprasad Dwivedi, Manu Sharma, Kailash Kher, Raju Srivastava, Suresh Raina) on 8th of November in 2014 and (Sourav Ganguly, Kiran Bedi, Padmanabha Acharya, Sonal Mansingh, Ramoji Rao, etc) on 25th of December in 2014.
To ensure cleanliness in the official buildings of UP, chewing paan, gutka and other tobacco products has been banned by the chief minister of Uttar Pradesh.
Other programmes like Swachh Bharat Run, Swachh Bharat apps, Real-time monitoring system, Swachh Bharat short film, Swachh Bharat Nepal – Swasth Bharat Nepal Abhiyan and so many has been initiated and implemented to actively support the purpose of the mission. In order to continue and make this campaign successful, Finance Ministry of India has started a programme named Swachh Bharat cess. According to this, everyone has to pay .5% more service tax on all the services in India (50 paise per 100 rupees) which will go to this cleanliness campaign.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan Essay 8 (1400 words – Long Essay)
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is started by the government to make India a completely clean India. Clean India was a dream seen by the Mahatma Gandhi regarding which he said that, “Sanitation is more important than Independence”. During his time he was well aware of the poor and dirty condition of the country that’s why he made various efforts to complete his dream however could not be successful. As he dreamt of clean India a day, he said that both cleanliness and sanitation are integral parts of healthy and peaceful living. Unfortunately, India became lack of cleanliness and sanitation even after 67 years of independence. According to the statistics, it has seen that only few percentage of total population have access to the toilets. It is a programme run by the government to seriously work to fulfill the vision of Father of Nation (Bapu) by calling the people from all walks of life to make it successful globally.
This mission has to be completed by 150th birth anniversary of Bapu (2nd October of 2019) in next five years (from the launch date). It is urged by the government to people to spend their only 100 hours of the year towards cleanliness in their surrounding areas or other places of India to really make it a successful campaign. There are various implementation policies and mechanisms for the programme including three important phases such as planning phase, implementation phase and sustainability phase.
What is Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a national cleanliness campaign established by the Government of India. This campaign is covering 4041 statutory towns in order to clean roads, streets, and infrastructure of the India. It is a mass movement has run to create a Clean India by 2019. It is a step ahead to the Mahatma Gandhi’s dream of swachh Bharat for healthy and prosperous life. This mission was launched on 2nd of October 2014 (145th birth anniversary of Bapu) by targeting its completeness in 2019 on 150th birth anniversary of Bapu. The mission has been implemented to cover all the rural and urban areas of the India under the Ministry of Urban Development and the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation accordingly.
The first cleanliness drive (on 25th of September 2014) of this mission was started by the Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi earlier to its launch. This mission has targeted to solve the sanitation problems as well as better waste management all over the India by creating sanitation facilities to all.
Need of Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
Swachh Bharat mission is very necessary to run continuously in India until it gets its goal. It is very essential for the people in India to really get the feeling of physical, mental, social and intellectual well being. It is to make living status advance in India in real means which can be started by bringing all over cleanliness. Below I have mentioned some points proving the urgent need of swachh bharat abhiyan in India:
- It is really very essential to eliminate the open defecation in India as well as making available toilets facility to everyone.
- It is needed in India to convert the insanitary toilets into flushing toilets.
- It is necessary in order to eradicate the manual scavenging system.
- It is to implement the proper waste management through the scientific processes, hygienic disposal, reuse, and recycling of the municipal solid wastes.
- It is to bring behavioral changes among Indian people regarding maintenance of personal hygiene and practice of healthy sanitation methods.
- It is to create global awareness among common public living in rural areas and link it to the public health.
- It is to support working bodies to design, execute and operate the waste disposal systems locally.
- It is to bring private-sector participation to develop sanitary facilities all through the India.
- It is to make India a clean and green India.
- It is necessary to improve the quality of life of people in rural areas.
- It is to bring sustainable sanitation practices by motivating communities and Panchayati Raj Institutions through the awareness programmes like health education.
- It is to bring the dream of Bapu to really come true.
Swachh Bharat Mission in Urban Areas
The swachh bharat mission of urban areas aims to cover almost 1.04 crore households in order to provide them 2.6 lakhs of public toilets, 2.5 lakhs of community toilets together with the solid wastes management in every town. Community toilets have been planned to be built in the residential areas where availability of individual household toilets is difficult and public toilets at designated locations including bus stations, tourist places, railway stations, markets, etc. Cleanliness programme in the urban areas (around 4,401 towns) have been planned to be completed over five years till 2019. The costs of programmes are set like Rs 7,366 crore on solid waste management, Rs 1,828 crore on public awareness, Rs 655 crore on community toilets, Rs 4,165 crore on individual household toilets, etc. Programmes which have been targeted to be completed are complete removal of open defecation, converting unsanitary toilets into flush toilets, eradicating manual scavenging, bring behavioral changes among public, and solid waste management.
Gramin Swachh Bharat Mission
Gramin swachh bharat mission is a mission implementing cleanliness programmes in the rural areas. Earlier the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (also called Total Sanitation campaign, TSC) was established by the Government of India in 1999 to make rural areas clean however now it has been restructured into the Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin). This campaign is aimed to make rural areas free of open defecation till 2019 for which the cost has been estimated is one lakh thirty four thousand crore rupees for constructing approximately 11 crore 11 lakh toilets in the country. There is a big plan of converting waste into bio-fertilizer and useful energy forms. This mission involves the participation of gram panchayat, panchayat samiti and Zila Parishad. Following are the objectives of Swachh Bharat Mission (Gramin):
- To improve quality of life of people living in the rural areas.
- Motivate people to maintain sanitation in rural areas to complete the vision of Swachh Bharat by 2019.
- To motivate local working bodies (such as communities, Panchayati Raj Institutions, etc) to make available the required sustainable sanitation facilities.
- Develop advance environmental sanitation systems manageable by the community especially to focus on solid and liquid waste management in the rural areas.
- To promote ecologically safe and sustainable sanitation in the rural areas.
Swachh Bharat-Swachh Vidyalaya Campaign
The swachh bharat swachh vidyalaya campaign runs by the Union Ministry of Human Resource Development having same objectives of cleanliness in the schools. A big programme was organized under it from 25th of September 2014 to 31st of October 2014 in the Kendriya Vidyalayas and Navodaya Vidyalya Sangathans where lots of cleanliness activities were held such as discussion over various cleanliness aspects in the school assembly by the students, teachings of Mahatma Gandhi related to cleanliness, cleanliness and hygiene topics, cleaning activities (in the class rooms, libraries, laboratories, kitchen sheds stores, playgrounds, gardens, toilets, pantry areas, etc), cleaning of statue in the school area, speech over the contribution of great people, essay writing competition, debates, art, painting, film, shows, role plays related to hygiene including other many activities on cleanliness and hygiene. It has also been planned to held half an hour cleaning campaign in the schools twice a week involving the cleanliness activities by the teachers, students, parents and community members.
Swachh Bharat cess: Swachh Bharat cess is an improvement in the service tax by .5% on all the services in India. It was started by the Finance Ministry to collect some fund from each and every Indian citizen for the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan in order to make it a successful campaign. Everyone has to pay extra 50 paise for each 100 rupees as service tax for this cleanliness campaign.
Another Cleanliness Initiative in Uttar Pradesh
Yogi Adityanath (Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh), in March 2017, has banned chewing paan, paan masala, gutka and other tobacco products (especially in the duty hours) in the government offices to ensure cleanliness. He started this initiative after his first visit to the secretariat annexe building when he saw betel-juice stained walls and corners in that building.
We can say swachh bharat abhiyan, a nice welcome step to the clean and green India till 2019. As we all heard about the most famous proverb that “Cleanliness is Next to Godliness”, we can say surely that clean India campaign (swachh bharat abhiyan) will really bring godliness all over the country in few years if it is followed by the people of India in effective manner. So, the cleanliness activities to warm welcome the godliness have been started but do not need to be ended if we really want godliness in our lives forever. A healthy country and a healthy society need its citizens to be healthy and clean in every walk of life.
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