For other uses, see Katipunan (disambiguation) and KKK (disambiguation).
Early flag of the Katipunan revolutionaries
|Motto||See the Kartilya ng Katipunan|
|Formation||July 7, 1892|
|Extinction||May 25, 1897|
|Type||Military secret society|
|Purpose||See Katipunan aims|
|Tagalog, regional languages|
|Deodato Arellano (1892–1893)|
Roman Basa (1893–1895)
Andrés Bonifacio (1895–1897)
|Kalayaan (dated January 1896, published March 1896)|
The Katipunan (usually abbreviated to KKK) was a Philippine revolutionary society founded by anti-SpanishFilipinos in Manila in 1892, whose primary aim was to gain independence from Spain through revolution. Based on recently found contemporary documents, the society had been organized as early as January 1892 but may not have become active until July 7 of the same year on the night when Filipino writer José Rizal was to be banished to Dapitan earlier in the day. Founded by Filipino patriots Andrés Bonifacio, Teodoro Plata, Ladislao Diwa and others, initially, the Katipunan was a secret organization until its discovery in 1896 that led to the outbreak of the Philippine Revolution.
The Tagalog word "katipunan", literally meaning 'association', comes from the root word "tipon," a Tagalog word meaning "gather"."[not in citation given] Its official revolutionary name was Kataas-taasan, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (lit. Supreme and Most Honorable Society of the Children of the Nation, Spanish: Suprema y Venerable Asociación de los Hijos del Pueblo). The Katipunan is also known by its acronym, KKK.
Being a secret organization, its members were subjected to the utmost secrecy and were expected to abide by the rules established by the society. Aspiring applicants were given standard initiation rites in order to become members of the society. At first, membership in the Katipunan was only open to male Filipinos; later, women were accepted into the society. The Katipunan had its own publication, Kalayaan (Liberty) which issued its first and last printing in March 1896. Revolutionary ideals and works flourished within the society, and Filipino literature was expanded by some of its prominent members.
In planning the revolution, Bonifacio contacted Rizal for his full-fledged support for the Katipunan in exchange for a promise to rescue Rizal from his detention. In May 1896, a delegation was sent to Emperor Meiji of Japan in order to solicit funds and military arms. The Katipunan's existence was revealed to the Spanish authorities after a member named Teodoro Patiño revealed the Katipunan's illegal activities to his sister, and finally to the mother portress of Mandaluyong Orphanage. Seven days after the Spanish authorities learned of the existence of the secret society, on December 26, 1896, Bonifacio and his men tore up their cédulas during the Cry of Balintawak that started the Philippine Revolution of 1896.
The name "Katipunan" comes from the full Tagalog name for the society: "Kataas-taasan Kagalang-galang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan" (lit. Highest and Most Respected Society of the Children of the Nation ).
Further information: La Liga Filipina and Propaganda Movement
The Katipunan and the Cuerpo de Compromisarios were, effectively, successor organizations of La Liga Filipina, founded by José Rizal (Who himself was inspired by the martyrdom of his predecessors, the nationalist Priests: Gomez, Burgos and Zamora). This organization was part of the late 19th century Propaganda Movement in the Philippines. Katipunan founders Andrés Bonifacio, Ladislao Diwa, and Teodoro Plata were all members of La Liga and were influenced by the nationalistic ideals of the Propaganda Movement in Spain.
Marcelo H. del Pilar, another leader of the Propaganda Movement in Spain, also influenced the formation of the Katipunan. Modern-day historians believe that he had a direct hand in its organization because of his role in the Propaganda Movement and his eminent position in Philippine Masonry; most of the Katipunan's founders were freemasons. The Katipunan had initiation ceremonies that were copied from masonic rites. It also had a hierarchy of rank that was similar to that of freemasonry. Rizal's Spanish biographer Wenceslao Retana and Filipino biographer Juan Raymundo Lumawag saw the formation of the Katipunan as Del Pilar's victory over Rizal: "La Liga dies, and the Katipunan rises in its place. Del Pilar's plan wins over that of Rizal. Del Pilar and Rizal had the same end, even if each took a different road to it."
Founding of the Katipunan
Captured Katipunan members (also known as Katipuneros), who were also members of La Liga, revealed to the Spanish colonial authorities that there was a difference of opinion among members of La Liga. One group insisted on La Liga's principle of a peaceful reformation while the other espoused armed revolution.
On the night of July 7, 1892, when José Rizal was banished and exiled to Dapitan in Mindanao, Andrés Bonifacio, a member of the La Liga Filipina, founded the Katipunan in a house in San Nicolas, Manila. Bonifacio did establish the Katipunan when it was becoming apparent to anti-Spanish Filipinos that societies like the La Liga Filipina would be suppressed by colonial authorities. He was assisted by his two friends, Teodoro Plata (brother-in-law) and Ladislao Diwa, plus Valentín Díaz and Deodato Arellano. The Katipunan was founded along Azcarraga St. (now Recto Avenue) near Elcano St. in San Nicolas, Manila. Despite their reservations about the peaceable reformation that Rizal espoused, they named Rizal honorary president without his knowledge. The Katipunan, established as a secret brotherhood organization, went under the name Kataas-taasang, Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Bayan (Supreme and Venerable Society of the Children of the Nation).
The Katipunan had four aims, namely:
- to develop a strong alliance with each and every Katipunero
- to unite Filipinos into one solid nation;
- to win Philippine independence by means of an armed conflict (or revolution);
- to establish a republic after independence.
The rise of the Katipunan signaled the end of the crusade to secure reforms from Spain by means of a peaceful campaign. The Propaganda Movement led by Rizal, del Pilar, Jaena and others had failed its mission; hence, Bonifacio started the militant movement for independence.
The Katipunan was governed by the Supreme Council (Tagalog: Kataas-taasang Sanggunian). The first Supreme Council of the Katipunan was formed around August 1892, a month after the founding of the society. The Supreme Council was headed by an elected president (Pangulo), followed by the secretary/secretaries (Kalihim); the treasurer (Tagaingat-yaman) and the fiscal (Tagausig). The Supreme Council also had its councilors (Kasanguni); the number varied through presidencies. To distinguish from presidents of lower sanggunian or councils (below) the president of the Supreme Council was called the Supreme President (Tagalog: Kataas-taasang Pangulo; Spanish: Presidente Supremo).
At the outbreak of the 1896 revolution, the Council was further reorganized into a 'cabinet' which the Katipunan regarded as a genuine revolutionary government, de facto and de jure.
In each province where there were Katipunan members, a provincial council called Sangguniang Bayan was established and in each town was an organized popular council called Sangguniang Balangay. Each Bayan and Balangay had its own set of elected officials: Pangulo (president); Kalihim (secretary); Tagausig (fiscal); Tagaingat-yaman (treasurer); Pangalawang Pangulo (vice president); Pangalawang Kalihim (vice secretary); mga kasanguni (councilors); Mabalasig (terrible brother); Taliba (guard); Maniningil (collector/auditor); Tagapamahala ng Basahan ng Bayan(custodian of the People's Library); Tagapangasiwa (administrator); Manunulat (clerk); Tagatulong sa Pagsulat (assistant clerk); Tagalaan (warden); and Tagalibot (patroller). Each Balangay were given a chance to expand their own spheres of influence, through triangle system in order to elevate their status to Sangguniang Bayan. Every Balangay that did not gain Sanggunian Bayan status were dissolved and annexed by greater provincial or popular councils.
The towns/cities which supported the Katipunan cause were given symbolic names, such as Magdiwang (To celebrate) for Noveleta; Magdalo (To come) for Kawit; Magwagi (To win) for Naic; Magtagumpay (To succeed) for Maragondon; Walangtinag (Never-diminished) for Indang and Haligue (Wall) for Imus–all are in the province of Cavite.
Within the society functioned a secret chamber, called Camara Reina, which was presided over by Bonifacio, Jacinto, and Pío Valenzuela. This mysterious chamber passed judgment upon those who had betrayed their oath and those accused of certain offenses penalized by Katipunan laws. Every katipunero stood in fearful awe of this chamber. According to José P. Santos, throughout the existence of the secret chamber, about five katipuneros were convicted and sentenced to die by it. The death sentence was handed down in the figure of a cup with a serpent coiled around it.
History of administration
In 1892, after the Katipunan was founded, the members of the Supreme Council consisted of Arellano as president, Bonifacio as comptroller, Diwa as fiscal, Plata as secretary and Díaz as treasurer.
In 1893, the Supreme Council comprised Ramón Basa as president, Bonifacio as fiscal, José Turiano Santiago as secretary, Vicente Molina as treasurer and Restituto Javier, Briccio Pantas, Teodoro Gonzales. Gonzales, Plata, and Diwa were councilors. It was during Basa's term that the society organized a women's auxiliary section. Two of its initial members were Gregoria de Jesús, whom Bonifacio had just married, and Marina Dizon, daughter of José Dizon. It was also in 1893 when Basa and Diwa organized the provincial council of Cavite, which would later be the most successful council of the society.
The Filipino scholar Maximo Kalaw reports that Basa yielded the presidency to Bonifacio in 1894 because of a dispute over the usefulness of the initiation rites and Bonifacio's handling of the society's buts. Basa contested Bonifacio's practice of lending their funds to needy members, complete with promissory notes. Moreover, Basa refused to induct his son into the organization.
It was also in 1894 when Emilio Jacinto, a nephew of Dizon who was studying law at the University of Santo Tomas, joined the Katipunan. He intellectualized the society's aims and formulated the principles of the society as embodied in its primer, called Kartilla. It was written in Tagalog and all recruits were required to commit it to heart before they were initiated. Jacinto would later be called the Brains of the Katipunan.
At the same time, Jacinto also edited Kalayaan (Freedom), the society's official organ, but only one edition of the paper was issued; a second was prepared but never printed due to the discovery of the society. Kalayaan was published through the printing press of the Spanish newspaper Diario de Manila. This printing press and its workers would later play an important role in the outbreak of the revolution.
In 1895, José Turiano Santiago, a close personal friend of Bonifacio, was expelled because a coded message of the Katipunan fell into the hands of a Spanish priest teaching at the University of Santo Tomas. Since the priest was a friend of Santiago's sister, he and his half-brother Restituto Javier were suspected of betrayal, but the two would remain loyal to the Katipunan and Santiago would even join the Philippine revolutionary forces in the Philippine–American War. Jacinto replaced Santiago as secretary.
In early 1895, Bonifacio called a meeting of the society and deposed Basa in an election that installed Bonifacio as president, Jacinto as Fiscal, Santiago as secretary, Molina as secretary, Pío Valenzuela and Pantaleon Torres as physicians, and Aguedo del Rosario and Doreteo Trinidad as councilors.
On December 31, 1895, another election named Bonifacio as president, Jacinto as Fiscal, Santiago as secretary, Molina as secretary, Pío Valenzuela and Pantaleon Torres as physicians, and Aguedo del Rosario and Doreteo Trinidad as councilors.
The members of the Supreme Council in 1895 were Bonifacio as president, Valenzuela as fiscal and physician, Jacinto as secretary, and Molina as treasurer. Enrico Pacheco, Pantaleon Torres, Balbino Florentino, Francisco Carreón and Hermenegildo Reyes were named councilers.
Eight months later, in August 1896, the fifth and last supreme council was elected to renamed offices. Bonifacio was named Supremo, Jacinto Secretary of State, Plata Secretary of War, Bricco Pantas Secretary of Justice, Aguedo del Rosario Secretary of Interior and Enrice Pacheco Secretary of Finance.
Over the next four years, the Katipunan founders would recruit new members. By the time the society was uncovered, the American writer James Le Roy estimated the strength of the Katipunan at 100,000 to 400,000 members. Historian Teodoro Agoncillo estimated that the membership had increased to around 30,000 by 1896. The Ilocano writer Isabelo de los Reyes estimated membership at 15,000 to 50,000.
Aside from Manila, the Katipunan also had sizeable chapters in Batangas, Laguna, Cavite, Rizal, Bulacan, Pampanga, Tarlac and Nueva Ecija. There were also smaller chapters in Ilocos Sur, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan and the Bicol region. The Katipunan founders spent their free time recruiting members. For example, Diwa, who was a clerk at a judicial court, was assigned to the office of a justice of the peace in Pampanga. He initiated members in that province as well as Bulacan, Tarlac, and Nueva Ecija. Most of the Katipuneros were plebeian although several wealthy patriots joined the society and submitted themselves to the leadership of Bonifacio.
Katipunero (plural, mga Katipunero) is the demonym of a male member of the Katipunan. Katipunera (plural, mga Katipunera) refers to female members.
Triangle system and grades
It was the original plan of Bonifacio to increase the membership of the Katipunan by means of sistemang patatsulok or triangle system. He formed his first triangle with his two comrades, Teodoro Plata and Ladislao Diwa. Each of them re-instituted Katipunan thoughts into another two new converts. The founder of the triangle knew the other two members, but the latter did not know each other. In December 1892 the system was abolished after proving it to be clumsy and complicated. A new system of initiation, modelled after the Masonic rites was then adopted.
When the Katipuneros had expanded to more than a hundred members, Bonifacio divided the members into three grades: the Katipon (literally: Associate) which is the lowest rank, the Kawal (soldier), and the Bayani (Hero or Patriot). In the meeting of the society, Katipon wore a black hood with a triangle of white ribbon having the letters "Z. Ll. B.", corresponding to the roman "A. N. B.", meaning Anak ng̃ Bayan (Son of the People, see below). Kawal wore a green hood with a triangle having white lines and the letters "Z. LL. B." at the three angles of the triangle, and also wore a green ribbon with a medal with the letter (ka) in Baybayin script above a depiction of a crossed sword and flag. The password was Gom-Bur-Za, taken from the names of the three martyrs Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos and Jacinto Zamora. Bayani (Hero) wore a red mask and a sash with green borders, symbolizing courage and hope. The front of the mask had white borders that formed a triangle with three Ks arranged as if occupying the angles of a triangle within a triangle, and with the letters "Z. Ll. B." below. Another password was Rizal. Countersigns enabled members to recognize one another on the street. A member meeting another member placed the palm of his right hand on his breast and, as he passed the other member, he closed the hands to bring the right index finger and thumb together.
- Katipon. First degree members. Other symbols: Black hood, revolver and/or bolo.
- Kawal. Second degree members. Other symbols: green ribboned-medallion with Malayan K inscription.
- Bayani. Third degree members. Other symbols: Red hood and sash, with green borders.
Katipon could graduate to Kawal class by bringing several new members into the society. A Kawal could become a Bayani upon being elected an officer of the society.
Any person who wished to join the Katipunan was subjected to certain initiation rites, resembling those of Masonic rites, to test his courage, patriotism, and loyalty. New recruits underwent the initiation rite three at a time so that no member knew more than two other members of the society. The neophyte was first blindfolded and then led into a dimly lighted room with black curtains where his folded cloth was removed from his eyes. An admonition, in Tagalog, was posted at the entrance to the room:
“ Kung may lakás at tapang, ìkaw'y makatutuloy!
(If you have strength and valor, you can proceed!)
“ Kung ang pag-uusisa ang nagdalá sa iyó dito'y umurong ka.
If what has brought you here is only curiosity–go away!
“ Kung di ka marunong pumigil ng̃ iyong masasamang hilig, umurong ka; kailan man ang pintuan ng̃
May-kapangyarihan at Kagalanggalang Katipunan ng̃ mg̃á Anak ng̃ Baya'y hindi bubuksan nang dahil sa iyó.
If you cannot control your vices, retire. Never shall the doors
of the Supreme and Venerable Society of the Sons of the People be opened to you.
Inside the candle-lit room, they would be brought to a table adorned with a skull and a bolo. There, they would condemn the abuses of the Spanish government and vow to fight colonial oppression:
1. ¿Anó ang kalagayan nitóng Katagalugan nang unang panahun? (In what condition did the Spaniards find the Tagalog land when they came?)
- (Expected answer) "When the Spaniards came to the Philippine shores on March 16, 1521, the Filipinos were already in a civilized state. They had freedom of government; they had artillery; they had silk dresses; they had carried on commerce with Asia; they had their own religion and their own alphabet. In short, they had liberty and independence."
2. ¿Anó ang kalagayan sa ngayón? (In what condition do they find themselves now?)
- (Expected answer) "The friars have not really civilized the Filipinos, since enlightenment was contrary to their interests. The Filipinos (called Tagalogs by the Katipunan) were merely superficially taught formulas of Catechism for which they paid numerous costly fiestas for the benefit of the friars."
3. ¿Anó ang magiging kalagayan sa darating na panahun? (What hopes do they have for the future?)
- (Expected answer) "With faith, valor, and perseverance, these evils will be remedied."
During Bonifacio's time, all of the Filipino people are referred collectively by the Katipunan as Tagalogs, while Philippines is Katagalugan.
The next step in the initiation ceremony was the lecture given by the master of ceremonies, called Mabalasig/Mabalasik (terrible brother), who informed the neophyte to withdraw if he lacked courage since he would be out of place in the patriotic society. If the neophyte persisted, he was presented to the assembly of the brethren, who subjected him to various ordeals such as blindfolding him and making him shoot a supposedly a revolver at a person, or forcing him to jump over a supposedly hot flame. After the ordeals came to final rite–the pacto de sangre or blood compact–in which the neophyte signed the oath with blood taken from his arm. He was then accepted as a full-pledged member, with a symbolic name by which he was known within Katipunan circles. Bonifacio's symbolic name was Maypagasa; Jacinto was Pingkian and Artemio Ricarte was Vibora.
Admission of women to the society
At first, Katipunan was purely a patriotic society for men. Owing to the growing suspicion of the women regarding nocturnal absences of their husbands, the reduction of their monthly earnings and "long hours of work", Bonifacio had to bring them into the realms of the KKK. A section for women was established in the society: to become admitted, one must be a wife, a daughter, or a sister of a male katipunero. It was estimated that from 20 to 50 women had become members of the society.
The first woman to become member of the Katipunan was Gregoria de Jesús, wife of Bonifacio. She was called the Lakambini ng Katipunan (Princess of the Katipunan). Initially, there were 29 women were admitted to the Katipunan: Gregoria de Jesús, Marina Dizon, president of the women's section; Josefa and Trinidad Rizal, sisters of Dr. José Rizal; Angelica Lopez and Delfina Herbosa Natividad, close relatives of Dr. Rizal; Carmén de Rodriguez; Marina Hizon; Benita Rodriguez; Semiona de Rémigio; Gregoria Montoya; Agueda Kahabagan, Teresa Magbanua, Trinidad Tecson, rendered as "Mother of Biak-na-Bato"; Nazaria Lagos; Patronica Gamboa; Marcela Agoncillo; Melchora Aquino, the "Grand Old Woman of Balintawak"; Marta Saldaña and Macaria Pañgilinan.
The women rendered valuable services to the Katipunan. They guarded the secret papers and documents of the society. Whenever the Katipunan held sessions in a certain house, they usually made merry, singing and dancing with some of the men in the living room so that the civil guard were led that there was nothing but a harmless social party within.
Though women are considered to be members of the Katipunan, information regarding the women's section were scarce and sometimes conflicting.Teodoro Agoncillo, for example, disregarded Marina Dizon and concluded that Josefa Rizal was the only president of the said section.Gregorio Zaide, on the other hand, mentioned Dizon's presidency in his 1939 publication History of the Katipunan but changed his mind when he adopted Dr. Pío Valenzuela's notion that women-members did not elect officers, hence there is no room for president.
- Andres Bonifacio (1863–1897) – Supremo, the founder and the third leader of the Katipunan.
- Emilio Aguinaldo (1869–1964) – First president of the First Philippine Republic, Katipunan's successor. He was also a war general and a leader of the Magdalo faction that led to a lot of notable victories for Katipunan against Spain. During his presidency, he ordered the execution of Andrés and Procopio Bonifacio in 1897 after the trial.
- Emilio Jacinto (1875–1899) – called as the Brains of the Katipunan. He wrote several papers during the Revolution like the Kartilya (Primer).
- Gregoria de Jesús (1875–1943) – called as the Lakambini ng Katipunan (Muse of the Katipunan) and nicknamed Aling Oryang, she was the wife of Bonifacio before marrying Julio Nakpil after the former's death. She was also regarded as one of the first women members of the Katipunan.
- Gregorio del Pilar (1875–1899) – entered the Katipunan circle when he joined the First Philippine Republic's army against the Americans. He died during the Battle of Tirad Pass.
- Pio del Pilar (1860–1931) – the leader of the Matagumpay chapter one of the closest officers of Andrés Bonifacio as the Newly Revolutionary government was established he was one of the officers who advised Aguinaldo to change the commutation (banishment) to execution of Andrés and Procopio Bonifacio.
- Licerio Gerónimo (1855–1924) – Aguinaldo's war general during Philippine–American War.
- Vicente Lukbán (1860–1916) – Americans regarded him to be the mastermind of the bloody Balangiga massacre in 1901 during Philippine–American War.
- Miguel Malvar y Carpio (1865–1911) – commander of the Katipunan and became a general of the First Philippine Republic.
- Enrique Pacheco – Alias Resurreccion Macabuhay. Secretary of Finance, and head of the Macabuhay Council.
- Macario Sakay- head of Katipunan in Trozo, Manila. Future founder of Republika ng Katagalugan that would oppose American occupation in the Philippines.
- Antonio Soliman
- Paciano Rizal – The older brother of national hero José Rizal, he was also a personal friend of Padre José Burgos in his youth. He joined the Katipunan years before Jose's return from Dapitan.
- Manuel Tinio (1877–1924) – youngest general of the Katipunan and the First Philippine Republic, he later became the governor of Nueva Ecija from 1907–1909.
- Aurelio Tolentino
- Jacinto Tolentino
- Solomon Doma
- Julian Felipe (1832–1835) – composer of Lupang Hinirang, teacher and member of La Liga Filipina, he later served as legal advisor to the Katipunan. His tenacious ability in argumentative reasoning earned him the nickname "demente viejo" among the colonial Principalía. In spite of being devout Catholic, Carpio, like other Filipino revolutionaries, was a member of the Freemasons
Two infographs depicting the ranks within the Katipunan and the Triangle system of recruitment.
WHAT IS LITERATURE?
Common definitions concerning the notion what literature means do not exist. Broadly speaking, literature is all that is written, everything that is opposed to the oral folk art and folklore. In the narrow sense, literature is defined as a collection of literary texts. These texts are called literary works. Artistic text can be both prose and verse. One should be familiar with various literary works in order to produce a good English literature review.
Unlike other forms of art such as painting, sculpture, music, dance, which have directly subject-sensual form made of any material object (paint, stone) or action (body movement, strings sound), literature creates its silhouette with the help of words and language materializing in sounds and indirectly in letters.
The subject of art is represented in the social world, diverse personal relation to reality, and reality concerning the human. Every work of art is an act of spiritual and emotional communication between people and, at the same time, it is a new thing, new phenomenon, new creation of man, and embodiment of artistic discovery. These functions are communication, creativity, and knowledge that can be common to all forms of artistic activity; although, different kinds of art tend to have a predominance of a particular function. In most cases, such information can be mentioned in a dissertation. English literature requires years of practice and study so one can come up with something new in the field; therefore, in most cases, many dissertations are alike.
Literary works written by English authors are a powerful reservoir of the world literary process. It gave the world such names as William Shakespeare, Jonathan Swift, George Gordon Byron, Percy Bysshe Shelley, Walter Scott, Charles Dickens, Oscar Wilde, Bernard Shaw, and many others. It is hard to imagine literature without these names, without well-known protagonists, without that kind of thoughts and feelings that embrace us while reading novels, poems, or plays, which can be later used as the basis for writing English literature dissertation.
Literature of English authors has passed a long way of development, inherent to any national literature. In order to compose proper research papers on English literature, it is useful to pay attention to the following information. It reached special heyday in the XIX century during the period of formation and development of romanticism. Representatives of the "Lake Poets" (Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey) were the first ones in literature of England who proclaimed new principles of literary creation, restoring national features. The banner of romanticism shows such authors as Byron, Shelley, Rossetti, Keats, giving readers an amazing, magical world, full of honor, valor, beauty, and nobility.
However, gradually, realism came to replace romanticism and spread in the second half of the XIX century, which is usually called "critical" one. The rejection of modernity grinds to its moral criteria is common for realism and romanticism, but if romance calls readers to the fictional world, the representatives of realism (Dickens, Thackeray, etc.) try to give a picture of person and society exploring the causal connection of phenomena.
At the end of the XIX century, literary works turned out to be romantic again. It was caused by the sense of the tragedy of existence that encouraged artists to seek a peace of mind and abstract away from the atmosphere of social problems. Such writers as Collins, Stevenson, Conan Doyle, etc. were called "neo-romanticists", and that can be mentioned in English literature essays.
The beginning of XX century witnessed new and emerging trends in the development of literature. With the end of Victorian epoch, prohibiting the frank display of physiological scenes, such English writers-naturalists as S. Maugham initiated the development of realism.
During the period between two World Wars, British and Irish writers were actively involved in the literary world and European process. R.Foks, K. Caldwell, S. O'Casey were active participants in political, national-liberation movement, and the literary.
When speaking about literary works by English authors of XX century, and what is even more important, when working on A Level English literature essay, it is worthy to mention such outstanding writer, novelist, playwright, master of socio-psychological novel as D. Galsworthy whose trilogy "The Forsyth Saga" is accustomed all over the world. H.G. Wells, J. Joyce, R. Aldington... this list of English writers' names is very long. English literature gave the world a lot of great writers and poets. It is worth noting that its history has gone through many stages and tough way of formation. These stages are divided according to the historical periods in England alongside with social and political situations. Titles of different periods coincide with place names of historical periods, literary or historical figures as well as literary themes and ideas. When writing A level English literature essays, one needs to take into account all the above-mentioned facts and information.
WHAT IS THE VALUE OF LITERATURE AND WHY DO WE STUDY IT?
When we were children, we often asked our mothers to read bedtime stories. It was as interesting as watching a favorite cartoon. Then in schools, we study literature more intensively and receive tasks among which can be English literature critical analysis. In high school, we are studying characters in details comparing them with modern people. During all these levels, students very often need homework help. English literature assignments are rather hard to complete, so there is no wonder that students may need such help.
If being a child we do not think about who wrote a story or poem, in school, we become interested in how and why work was written. We even start thinking about how to write an English literature essay. Books help understand people and life, and claim the best human ideals around us. The study of literature is an acquaintance with views of other people concerning issues that people always want to be clarified: what is love, what is good and evil, and so on.
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