Javascript Concatenation Assignment Operator Definition

Addition Assignment Operator (+=) (JavaScript)

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Adds the value of an expression to the value of a variable and assigns the result to the variable.

Syntax

Parameters


Any variable.


Any expression.

Using this operator is exactly the same as specifying: .

The types of the two expressions determine the behavior of the operator.

IfThen
Both expressions are numeric or BooleanAdd
Both expressions are stringsConcatenate
One expression is numeric and the other is a stringConcatenate

Requirements

Supported in the following document modes: Quirks, Internet Explorer 6 standards, Internet Explorer 7 standards, Internet Explorer 8 standards, Internet Explorer 9 standards, Internet Explorer 10 standards, Internet Explorer 11 standards. Also supported in Store apps (Windows 8 and Windows Phone 8.1). See Version Information.

See Also

Addition Operator (+)
Operator Precedence
Operator Summary (JavaScript)

JavaScript Variables

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JavaScript variables are containers for storing data values.

In this example, x, y, and z, are variables:

From the example above, you can expect:

  • x stores the value 5
  • y stores the value 6
  • z stores the value 11

Much Like Algebra

In this example, price1, price2, and total, are variables:

In programming, just like in algebra, we use variables (like price1) to hold values.

In programming, just like in algebra, we use variables in expressions (total = price1 + price2).

From the example above, you can calculate the total to be 11.

JavaScript variables are containers for storing data values.



JavaScript Identifiers

All JavaScript variables must be identified with unique names.

These unique names are called identifiers.

Identifiers can be short names (like x and y) or more descriptive names (age, sum, totalVolume).

The general rules for constructing names for variables (unique identifiers) are:

  • Names can contain letters, digits, underscores, and dollar signs.
  • Names must begin with a letter
  • Names can also begin with $ and _ (but we will not use it in this tutorial)
  • Names are case sensitive (y and Y are different variables)
  • Reserved words (like JavaScript keywords) cannot be used as names

JavaScript identifiers are case-sensitive.


The Assignment Operator

In JavaScript, the equal sign (=) is an "assignment" operator, not an "equal to" operator.

This is different from algebra. The following does not make sense in algebra:

In JavaScript, however, it makes perfect sense: it assigns the value of x + 5 to x.

(It calculates the value of x + 5 and puts the result into x. The value of x is incremented by 5.)

The "equal to" operator is written like == in JavaScript.


JavaScript Data Types

JavaScript variables can hold numbers like 100 and text values like "John Doe".

In programming, text values are called text strings.

JavaScript can handle many types of data, but for now, just think of numbers and strings.

Strings are written inside double or single quotes. Numbers are written without quotes.

If you put a number in quotes, it will be treated as a text string.


Declaring (Creating) JavaScript Variables

Creating a variable in JavaScript is called "declaring" a variable.

You declare a JavaScript variable with the var keyword:

After the declaration, the variable has no value. (Technically it has the value of undefined)

To assign a value to the variable, use the equal sign:

You can also assign a value to the variable when you declare it:

var carName = "Volvo";

In the example below, we create a variable called carName and assign the value "Volvo" to it.

Then we "output" the value inside an HTML paragraph with id="demo":

Example

<p id="demo"></p>

<script>
var carName = "Volvo";
document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = carName;
</script>

Try it Yourself »

It's a good programming practice to declare all variables at the beginning of a script.


One Statement, Many Variables

You can declare many variables in one statement.

Start the statement with var and separate the variables by comma:

A declaration can span multiple lines:


Value = undefined

In computer programs, variables are often declared without a value. The value can be something that has to be calculated, or something that will be provided later, like user input.

A variable declared without a value will have the value undefined.

The variable carName will have the value undefined after the execution of this statement:


Re-Declaring JavaScript Variables

If you re-declare a JavaScript variable, it will not lose its value.

The variable carName will still have the value "Volvo" after the execution of these statements:


JavaScript Arithmetic

As with algebra, you can do arithmetic with JavaScript variables, using operators like = and +:

You can also add strings, but strings will be concatenated:

Also try this:

If you put a number in quotes, the rest of the numbers will be treated as strings, and concatenated.

Now try this:


Test Yourself with Exercises!

Exercise 1 »  Exercise 2 »  Exercise 3 »  Exercise 4 »  Exercise 5 »  Exercise 6 »


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