# Latex Beamer Bibliography Cite Page

Learn how to create a bibliography using modern biblatex and biber - A short tutorial.

This will only be a short overview of the main and most often used features of biblatex and biber to create a bibliography. More detailed information can be found in the package documentation.

### The database

Creating a bibliography using biblatex and biber means storing all of your available bibliographic information in a simple text-based database. The name should be as unique as possible, for example . This is helpful when transferring files with your advisor, students or colleagues. biber is used to deal with the database.

A sample database file could look like this:

@article{wombat2016, author = {Walther Wombat and Klaus Koala}, title = {The true meaning of 42}, journal = {Journal of modern skepticism}, date = {2016}, keywords = {trusted}, } @book{lion2010, author = {Laura Lion and Gabrielle Giraffe and Carl Capybara}, title = {The dangers of asking the wrong question}, publisher = {publishing house}, date = {2010}, keywords = {trusted}, } @online{wikibook, title = {Generating Bibliographies with biblatex and biber}, organization = {Wikibooks}, date = {2016}, urldate = {2016-03-07}, url = {https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/LaTeX/Generating_Bibliographies_with_biblatex_and_biber}, keywords = {untrusted}, }

Every entry in the database starts with an -sign followed by the entry type. More types are available, the package documentation lists all of them. The bibliographic information for each entry are stored in a pair of braces, beginning with a unique keyword for that entry (bibkey). Least complicated way of presenting the data is every field type in a new line, the content in curly braces, followed by a comma. The order in which you give the information is not important.

Please have a close look at the authors, every individual author is separated by the keyword . All dates are written in YYYY-MM-DD, or just the year if the other information is not available. The file which should have been installed with the package contains some sample entries.

### Setting up biber

Biber is the name of the helper program that sorts the entries and provides all the relevant information to package biblatex. If you are not comfortable using the command line (aka the terminal), you should set up your editor to call biber for you. Setting up my editor to use biber shows how to do it for the different editors.

### A simple example

 \documentclass{article}\usepackage[backend=biber]{biblatex}\addbibresource{lauraPhd2016.bib}\begin{document} I doubt that there is any useful information here~\cite{wikibook}. All we know is limited, apart from knowing the answer we all know. Or do we? Wombat and Koala have discovered some interesting things~\cite{wombat2016}. Some people are too nosy. What can happen to them is described by Laura Lion~\cite[9]{lion2010}. \printbibliography\end{document}

Now how does it actually work? Package biblatex is loaded with the option followed by adding your database file to the list of bibliographic files using . Please note that the file extension is mandatory and that this is happening in the preamble of the document.

Within the document you can cite one of your database entries using . Your database can contain hundreds of entries, but only cited references will occur in the final list. You can use to add uncited entries to the list. If you want to add all entries from the database use .

Finally, the list of your references is printed with .

Running LaTeX (no matter if , etc.) on the main document will result in the following output.

LaTeX Warning: Citation 'wikibook' on page 1 undefined on input line 5. LaTeX Warning: Citation 'wombat2016' on page 1 undefined on input line 7. LaTeX Warning: Citation 'lion2010' on page 1 undefined on input line 9. LaTeX Warning: Empty bibliography on input line 11. [1{/usr/local/texlive/2017/texmf-var/fonts/map/pdftex/updmap/pdftex.map}] (./lauraPhd2016Main.aux) LaTeX Warning: There were undefined references. Package biblatex Warning: Please (re)run Biber on the file: (biblatex) lauraPhd2016Main (biblatex) and rerun LaTeX afterwards.

We get several warnings about undefined references, no bibliography and instead of proper citations, we see just the cite key in bold.

In order to really get a bibliography and the citations, and not just the infamous warning, you have to run biber after latex to extract the relevant data from the database. After setting up biber as described in Setting up my editor to use biber you should be able to do it by pressing one button while working on your document. To incorporate the bibliography information into your document, LaTeX then has to process the data biber has generated before. To sum it up, if you have a file you (or your editor) will have to do:

• latex lauraPhdd2016Main
• biber lauraPhdd2016Main
• latex lauraPhdd2016Main

Everytime your database is updated, remember to process the database by calling biber.

The full result can be seen in the picture below. Please note that package biblatex adds some small little details. Can you see things that are printed but have not been defined?

## Reference Styles

Different reference styles are in use within the different disciplines of science. Very broadly speaking, you can divide into a numerical referencing sytem (Vancouver) or an author date referencing system (Harvard).

Package biblatex[1] provides different citation commands that generate different output (in-text citation, footnotes and more). A few examples are given below, the package documentation contains and explains the use of the whole set.

### Numerical Referencing

Numerical referencing is the default style. Numbers within brackets are used in text and in the bibliography. Using makes it easy to change the style into footnotes. gives a bibliography that is sorted chronologically, i.e. the numbers increase to the end of the document.

 \documentclass{article}\usepackage[backend=biber,style=numeric,autocite=plain,sorting=none]{biblatex}\addbibresource{lauraPhd2016.bib}\begin{document} I doubt that there is any useful information here.~\cite{wikibook} All we know is limited, apart from knowing the answer we all know. Or do we? \citeauthor{wombat2016} have discovered some interesting things.~\autocite[compare][80]{wombat2016} What can happen to nosy people is described by \textcite[9]{lion2010}. \printbibliography\end{document}

Using gives a diffferent output. Can you spot all the differences?

### Author Date Referencing

If you want an author-date referencing style, you can use when loading biblatex. The option with the option puts parenthesis around the cite genererated with (which is similar to using . In some cases, may come in handy when the citation is the subject and part of the sentence flow.

 \documentclass{article}\usepackage[backend=biber,style=authoryear,autocite=inline]{biblatex}\addbibresource{lauraPhd2016.bib}\begin{document} I doubt that there is any useful information here~\cite{wikibook}. All we know is limited, apart from knowing the answer we all know. Or do we?~\cite{wombat2016} Some people are too nosy. What can happen to them is described by Laura Lion~\autocite[9]{lion2010}. Some people are too nosy. What can happen to them is described by \textcite[9]{lion2010}. \printbibliography\end{document}

### APA Citing

The American Psychological Association (APA) defines a very strict author year style. You can access it using and additionally defining the language mapping.

Compare the output with the normal author year style. How many changes can you spot?

## Separate Bibliographies by Entry Type

Suppose you want to have a separate bibliography for all the online resources you are citing. No problem using the optional argument of . You can also change the title (and other stuff).

## Splitting into different topics

You can split your bibliography into different topics, in trusted and untrusted sources, or in primary and secondary sources. The way to tell biblatex what is what, is by adding a tag to the entries of the database.

@book{lion2010, author = {Laura Lion and Gabrielle Giraffe and Carl Capybara}, title = {The dangers of asking the wrong question}, publisher = {publishing house}, date = {2010}, keywords = {trusted}, }

Note, that the entryfield in the dataase is called (plural) because you can have more than one keyword (separated by commas). When calling the command, you have to use the singular. biblatex has a powerful system of filtering data, more can be found in the manual.

## Bibliographies per Section or Chapter

Some people have the need for a reference list at the end of each chapter or section. This can be done using .

## A bibliography in a presentation

You can use package with (see the Presentations section) to have citations and a reference list in your presentation. Using full cites right away is recommended, so listeners don't have to wait till the very end to see where information is drawn from.

Back to main bibliography page

LaTeX supports bibliographies out of the box, either embedding the references in your document or storing them in an external file. This article explains how to manage bibliography with the environment and the BibTeX system.

Note: If you are starting from scratch it's recommended to use biblatex since that package provides localization in several languages, it's actively developed and makes bibliography management easier and more flexible.

## Introduction

Standard bibliography commands in LaTeX have a similar syntax to that of lists and items.

\begin{thebibliography}{9}\bibitem{latexcompanion} Michel Goossens, Frank Mittelbach, and Alexander Samarin. \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion}. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1993.   \bibitem{einstein} Albert Einstein. \textit{Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter K{\"o}rper}. (German) [\textit{On the electrodynamics of moving bodies}]. Annalen der Physik, 322(10):891–921, 1905.   \bibitem{knuthwebsite} Knuth: Computers and Typesetting, \\\texttt{http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/\~{}uno/abcde.html}\end{thebibliography}

The environment produces a list of references; such list will be titled "References" in a article document class, and "Bibliography" in book and report document classes. A parameter inside braces, in the example, indicates the number of entries to be added; this parameter can not be greater than 99.

To create a bibliography entry the command is used. A parameter inside braces is set to label this entry and can later be used as identifier for this reference. After the closing brace the text with the name of the author, the book title, publisher and so on is entered.

ShareLaTeX provides several templates with pre-defined styles to manage bibliography. See this link

Open an example in ShareLaTeX

## Embedded system

The example presented in the introduction only contains list of references, the next example shows how to cite the entries of that list within the document.

\begin{document}   \section{First section}   This document is an example of \texttt{thebibliography} environment using in bibliography management. Three items are cited: \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion} book \cite{latexcompanion}, the Einstein journal paper \cite{einstein}, and the Donald Knuth's website \cite{knuthwebsite}. The \LaTeX\ related items are \cite{latexcompanion,knuthwebsite}.   \medskip   \begin{thebibliography}{9}\bibitem{latexcompanion} Michel Goossens, Frank Mittelbach, and Alexander Samarin. \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion}. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Massachusetts, 1993.   \bibitem{einstein} Albert Einstein. \textit{Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter K{\"o}rper}. (German) [\textit{On the electrodynamics of moving bodies}]. Annalen der Physik, 322(10):891–921, 1905.   \bibitem{knuthwebsite} Knuth: Computers and Typesetting, \\\texttt{http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/\~{}uno/abcde.html}\end{thebibliography}   \end{document}

The command insert the number corresponding to the bibliography entry whose label is passed inside braces. For example, the output of is [2].

The information printed by the command depends on the bibliography style used. See Bibtex bibliography styles.

Open an example in ShareLaTeX

## Bibliography management with Bibtex

BibTeX is a widely used bibliography management tool in LaTeX, with BibTeX the bibliography entries are kept in a separate file and then imported into the main document.

Once the external bibliography file is imported, the command is used just as in the introductory example.

Ths document is an example of BibTeX using in bibliography management. Three items are cited: \textit{The \LaTeX\ Companion} book \cite{latexcompanion}, the Einstein journal paper \cite{einstein}, and the Donald Knuth's website \cite{knuthwebsite}. The \LaTeX\ related items are \cite{latexcompanion,knuthwebsite}.   \medskip   \bibliographystyle{unsrt}\bibliography{sample}

This uses the following commands:

Imports the BibTeX file "sample.bib" to display the bibliography. To import several .bib files just write them comma-separated inside the braces, the file extension is not necessary.
Sets the bibliography style to be used in this document. The information displayed depends on the bibliography style used, even if the entry contains information about the date, author, title, publisher, and abstract, the style used might only print the title and the author. See Bibtex bibliography styles which contains examples of the default bibliography styles in LaTeX.
This will print a number of text, depending on the bibliography style, to reference the bibliography entry whose label is passed to the command. In this case, the label produces [2].

When the main document is compiled, a .bbl file is generated from the .bib file. This is simply a .tex file reorganising the information in the .bib file in a environment, as above. On ShareLaTeX the .bbl file is stored in the cache, and you can download it from the list of other logs and files.

Note: Unicode characters are not supported on BibTeX. Also, if there are too many bibliography entries (+100) it may not work properly. See the further reading section for links to other bibliography management tools.

Open an example of the bibtex package in ShareLaTeX

## The bibliography file

Bibliographic references are usually kept in a bibliography file whose extension is .bib, this file consists of a list of records and fields. Each bibliography record holds relevant information for a single entry.

This file contains records in a special format, for instance, the first bibliographic reference is defined by:

This is the first line of a record entry, denotes the entry type and tells BibTeX that the information stored here is about an article. Besides the entry types shown in the example (, and ) there are a lot more, see the reference guide.
The label is assigned to this entry, is an identifier that can be used to refer this article within the document.
This is the first field in the bibliography entry, indicates that the author of this article is Albert Einstein. Several comma-separated fields can be added using the same syntax , for instance: title, pages, year, URL, etc. See the reference guide for a list of possible fields.

The information in this file can later be used within a LaTeX document to include these references, as shown in the next subsection.

Open an example of the bibtex package in ShareLaTeX

There are two ways of including the bibliography in the table of contents, either manually adding it or using the package tocbibind (recommended).

To add it manually just insert the next line right before the command or

for books and reports or

for articles. If you prefer to use tocbibind see the next example.

\documentclass[a4paper,10pt]{article}\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}\usepackage[english]{babel}   \usepackage[nottoc]{tocbibind}   \begin{document}   \tableofcontents   \section{First Section} This document ...   \bibliographystyle{unsrt}\bibliography{sample}   \end{document}

Open an example of the bibtex package in ShareLaTeX

## Reference guide

Standard entry types

Article from a magazine or journal
A published book
A work that is printed but have no publisher or sponsoring institution
An article in a conference proceedings
A part of a book (section, chapter and so on)
A part of a book having its own title
An article in a conference proceedings
Technical documentation
A Master's thesis
Something that doesn't fit in any other type
A PhD thesis
The same as
Document not formally published, with author and title

Most common fields used in BibTeX

 address annote author booktitle chapter crossref edition editor institution journal key month note number organization pages publisher school series title type volume year URL ISBN ISSN LCCN abstract keywords price copyright language contents