Bibliography Style Harvard Deutschland

Our citation generator is great for automatically compiling your bibliographies, but it's still important you know the process of creating a bibliography manually, and the reasons why citing your sources is necessary.

For these reasons we have prepared the following set of guides to assist you:

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  • Acta Polytechnica style
  • ACM SIGCHI Proceedings style
  • American Chemical Society (page-first) style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles, no "et al.") style
  • ACM SIGCHI Proceedings - Extended Abstract Format style
  • Acta Ophthalmologica style
  • Advanced Engineering Materials style
  • Ameghiniana style
  • American Political Science Association style
  • Acta Naturae style
  • Acta Palaeontologica Polonica style
  • ACM SIGGRAPH style
  • ACM SIG Proceedings ("et al." for 15+ authors) style
  • Advanced Materials style
  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers style
  • American Journal of Surgical Pathology style
  • Advanced Functional Materials style
  • Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences) (Swedish) style
  • American Medical Association style
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition style
  • American Association for Cancer Research style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles, sentence case) style
  • American Physiological Society style
  • Acta Pharmaceutica style
  • Allergy style
  • American Institute of Physics style
  • African Zoology style
  • AIDS style
  • Annals of the Association of American Geographers style
  • Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Université de Montréal) (French - Canada) style
  • Arthritis & Rheumatism style
  • Annales. Histoire, Sciences sociales (French) style
  • Annals of Oncology style
  • ACS Nano style
  • Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica style
  • American Association of Petroleum Geologists style
  • American Journal of Health Behavior style
  • Arzneimitteltherapie style
  • Aquatic Living Resources style
  • Australian Historical Studies style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles, page-first) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Spanish/Español) style
  • Asian Studies Review style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal do Paraná (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics style
  • Biochemical Society Transactions style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Association for Computational Linguistics - Conference Proceedings style
  • Academy of Management Review style
  • Acta Materialia style
  • American Chemical Society (author-date) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (annotated bibliography with abstract) style
  • Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics style
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta style
  • Biochemical Journal style
  • Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica style
  • Aging Cell style
  • Annals of Neurology style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (German/Deutsch) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - FACE (Autoria completa. Exemplo: MENDES, José) (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics style
  • Administrative Science Quarterly style
  • American Journal of Agricultural Economics style
  • Alternatives to Animal Experimentation style
  • Anesthesia and Analgesia style
  • Association for Computing Machinery style
  • Annual Reviews (author-date) style
  • American Journal of Botany style
  • Biotropica style
  • British Journal of Political Science style
  • Anticancer Research style
  • American Journal of Plant Sciences style
  • American Journal of Human Genetics style
  • Archaeometry style
  • Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie style
  • Australian Guide to Legal Citation style
  • Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science style
  • ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs) style
  • Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine style
  • Biophysical Journal style
  • BioMed Research International style
  • British Journal of Surgery style
  • American Veterinary Medical Association style
  • Bioelectromagnetics style
  • Campus adventiste du Salève - Faculté adventiste de théologie (French) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Annual Reviews (sorted by order of appearance) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (curriculum vitae, sorted by descending date) style
  • Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters style
  • Cerebral Cortex style
  • Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (Spanish) style
  • Avian Pathology style
  • Biochemistry style
  • Biological Psychiatry style
  • Council of Science Editors, Citation-Sequence (numeric) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (French/Français) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Italian/Italiano) style
  • Blood style
  • Bluebook Law Review (2) style
  • Endocrine Press style
  • Environmental Conservation style
  • Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation style
  • British Ecological Society style
  • ergoscience style
  • European Journal of Soil Science style
  • Annals of Biomedical Engineering style
  • AMBIO style
  • American Journal of Political Science style
  • Brain style
  • Canadian Public Policy style
  • BioMed Central style
  • Clinical Microbiology and Infection style
  • ACM SIG Proceedings ("et al." for 3+ authors) style
  • Advances in Alzheimer's Disease style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - FACE (Autoria abreviada. Exemplo: MENDES, J.) (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Evolution & Development style
  • BioTechniques style
  • Building Structure (Chinese) style
  • Fachhochschule Vorarlberg (German) style
  • Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering style
  • American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine style
  • Australian Veterinary Journal style
  • American Geophysical Union style
  • Boreal Environment Research style
  • BYZANTINA SYMMEIKTA style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (library list) style
  • Bulletin of Marine Science style
  • Acta Neurochirurgica style
  • American Journal of Medical Genetics style
  • Chinese Std GB/T 7714-1987 (numeric, Chinese) style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (author-date, Basque) style
  • France (tous les auteurs, numérotation, French) style
  • Freshwater Biology style
  • Advances in Complex Systems style
  • Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae style
  • Clinical Nuclear Medicine style
  • British Journal of Pharmacology style
  • American Phytopathological Society style
  • American Anthropological Association style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles) style
  • Australian Journal of Earth Sciences style
  • Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research style
  • American Mineralogist style
  • Annual Review of Medicine style
  • Bulletin de la Société préhistorique française (French) style
  • American Journal of Archaeology style
  • Carcinogenesis style
  • Cell style
  • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen - Institut für Ethnologie und Ethnologische Sammlung (German) style
  • Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press style
  • Applied Spectroscopy style
  • CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets style
  • Chest style
  • Chinese Std GB/T 7714-2005 (author-date, Chinese) style
  • Hamburg School of Food Science (diploma, German) style
  • American Heart Association style
  • Centaurus style
  • Chicago style
  • Council of Science Editors, Citation-Name (numeric, sorted alphabetically) style
  • Current Proteomics style
  • American Journal of Neuroradiology style
  • Cell journals (numeric) style
  • Cell Research style
  • Anesthesiology style
  • Antarctic Science style
  • Decision Sciences style
  • Arachne style
  • Archéologie médiévale (French) style
  • American Sociological Association style
  • Harvard - Manchester Business School style
  • Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics style
  • American Medical Association (sorted alphabetically) style
  • American Psychological Association 5th edition style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (single-spaced bibliography) style
  • Cellular Reprogramming style
  • Chinese Std GB/T 7714-2005 (numeric, Chinese) style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (note, no Ibid.) style
  • Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Provost) (French - Canada) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Coral Reefs style
  • Corrosion style
  • De Buck (Dutch) style
  • Ecology Letters style
  • Avian Conservation and Ecology style
  • Avian Diseases style
  • Babes-Bolyai University - Faculty of Orthodox Theology (Romanian) style
  • Annals of Botany style
  • Antiquity style
  • American Medical Association (no URL) style
  • Ecosystems style
  • Elsevier (numeric, with titles, sorted alphabetically) style
  • Clinical Otolaryngology style
  • Chroniques des activités archéologiques de l'Ecole française de Rome (French) style
  • Disability and Rehabilitation style
  • American Meteorological Society style
  • American Journal of Epidemiology style
  • Conservation Biology style
  • Bluebook Inline style
  • BMJ style
  • Drugs of Today style
  • Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Turkish) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (note, Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Current Protocols journals style
  • British Journal of Cancer style
  • Body & Society style
  • British Journal of Anaesthesia style
  • Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies style
  • Database style
  • Diatom Research style
  • American Society of Civil Engineers style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (full note) style
  • Hydrological Sciences Journal style
  • Emu - Austral Ornithology style
  • ANPET - Congresso de Pesquisa e Ensino em Transportes (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • DIN 1505-2 (numeric, German) style
  • Ear and Hearing style
  • Économie et Statistique (French) style
  • Entomological Society of America style
  • El profesional de la información (Spanish) style
  • Ausonius Éditions (French) style
  • DIN 1505-2 (numeric, sorted alphabetically, German) style
  • American Medical Association (no "et al.") style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (note) style
  • Environmental Health Perspectives style
  • British Journal of Dermatology style
  • Clio Medica style
  • Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift (German) style
  • Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata style
  • EMBO reports style
  • Engineering in Life Sciences style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (no DOIs, no issue numbers) style
  • Currents in Biblical Research style
  • Ingeniería Agrícola (Spanish) style
  • Ethics (for book reviews) style
  • Chemical Senses style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (figures and illustrations) style
  • Clays and Clay Minerals style
  • European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases style
  • Environmental & Engineering Geoscience style
  • European Respiratory Journal style
  • Clay Minerals style
  • Collection du Centre Jean-Bérard (French) style
  • Deutsches Archäologisches Institut style
  • American Phytopathological Society (numeric) style
  • Cuadernos de Filología Clásica. Estudios Griegos e Indoeuropeos (autor-año, Spanish) style
  • Die Bachelorarbeit (Samac et al.) (in-text, German) style
  • International Journal of Lexicography style
  • DIN 1505-2 (alphanumeric, German) style
  • Annual Reviews (sorted alphabetically) style
  • Current Opinion journals style
  • Épidémiologie et Santé Animale style
  • Elsevier Harvard (without titles) style
  • International Pig Veterinary Society Congress Proceedings style
  • Ecological Entomology style
  • Environmental Microbiology style
  • Ethnobiology and Conservation style
  • European Union Interinstitutional Style Guide style
  • European Retail Research style
  • Austrian Legal (German - Austria) style
  • Bioinformatics style
  • Arachnology style
  • American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America style
  • DNA Research style
  • Earth Surface Processes and Landforms style
  • European Journal of Pain style
  • Sascha Foerster - Geisteswissenschaft (German) style
  • British Journal of Haematology style
  • BibTeX generic citation style style
  • Biological Journal of the Linnean Society style
  • Equine Veterinary Education style
  • Evolutionary Ecology Research style
  • European Journal of Information Systems style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (note, annotated bibliography) style
  • Fertility and Sterility style
  • Equine Veterinary Journal style
  • Journal of Adolescent Health style
  • Evolutionary Anthropology style
  • Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry style
  • Emerald journals (Harvard) style
  • European Journal of Human Genetics style
  • France (auteurs et al., numérotation, French) style
  • Geografie Sborník ČGS (Czech) style
  • Journal of Animal Science style
  • Annual Reviews (sorted by order of appearance, without titles) style
  • First Monday style
  • French Politics style
  • Harvard - Oxford Brookes University - Faculty of Health and Life Sciences style
  • Harvard style
  • Harvard - City University London style
  • Circulation style
  • Council of Science Editors, Name-Year (author-date) style
  • Biological Reviews style
  • Harvard - Swinburne University of Technology style
  • European Journal of Political Research style
  • Future Science Group style
  • Ecology style
  • Environment and Planning style
  • Harvard - The University of Northampton style
  • Federation of European Microbiological Societies style
  • Eye style
  • Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment style
  • Geoarchaeology style
  • Grasas y Aceites style
  • Harvard - Gesellschaft für Bildung und Forschung in Europa (German) style
  • Geological Magazine style
  • Bluebook Law Review style
  • Journal of Industrial Ecology style
  • Biotechnology and Bioengineering style
  • Cite Them Right 10th edition - Harvard style
  • Heredity style
  • Human Reproduction style
  • Cytometry style
  • Elsevier Harvard 2 style
  • Journal of Mammalogy style
  • Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences style
  • IEEE (with URL) style
  • Infoclio (sans majuscules, French) style
  • European Cells & Materials style
  • Elsevier (numeric, without titles) style
  • Frontiers in Optics style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, parentheses, Czech) style
  • Health Policy and Planning style
  • Harvard - Bath University style
  • European Journal of Ophthalmology style
  • Harvard - Manchester Metropolitan University style
  • The Journal of Biological Chemistry style
  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons style
  • Histoire@Politique. Politique, culture, société (French) style
  • Frontiers journals style
  • Frontiers in Physics style
  • Russian GOST R 7.0.5-2008 (numeric) style
  • Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine style
  • Manchester University Press monographs style
  • Fachhochschule Kiel - Fachbereich Medien (German) style
  • Fish and Fisheries style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (author-date, German) style
  • Harvard - University of Gloucestershire style
  • Freie Universität Berlin - Geographische Wissenschaften (German) style
  • McDonald Institute Monographs style
  • Gallia (French) style
  • Genes to Cells style
  • Free Radical Research style
  • Clinical Infectious Diseases style
  • Harvard - Newcastle University style
  • Harvard - North-West University style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition style
  • Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems style
  • European Journal of Emergency Medicine style
  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta style
  • Brazilian Journal of Botany style
  • Harvard - University of Sunderland style
  • Harvard - Cape Peninsula University of Technology style
  • Modern Language Association 6th edition (note) style
  • Harvard Reference format 7 (author-date, German) style
  • Bournemouth University - Harvard style
  • Forest Science style
  • Geology style
  • Harvard - The University of Sheffield - School of East Asian Studies style
  • Harvard (German/Deutsch) style
  • Health Services Research style
  • Mohr Siebeck - Recht (German - Austria) style
  • Austral Ecology style
  • Biometrics style
  • Hypotheses in the Life Sciences style
  • Cell Transplantation style
  • Harvard - The University of Sheffield - Town and Regional Planning style
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases style
  • Molecular Plant style
  • Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair style
  • Harvard - University of Abertay Dundee style
  • European Journal of Immunology style
  • Irish Historical Studies style
  • Obesity style
  • Pädagogische Hochschule Heidelberg (German) style
  • Conservation Letters style
  • Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research style
  • Harvard - University of Hull style
  • European Journal of Neuroscience style
  • ISO-690 (full note, Slovak) style
  • Critical Care Medicine style
  • Journal of Rheumatology style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (full note, no Ibid.) style
  • Harvard - York University style
  • Insectes Sociaux style
  • International Journal of Epidemiology style
  • Geistes- und Kulturwissenschaften (Heilmann) (German) style
  • Journal of Basic Microbiology style
  • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychologie (German) style
  • Global Change Biology style
  • International Union of Crystallography journals style
  • Genèses: Sciences sociales et histoire (French) style
  • Global Ecology and Biogeography style
  • Fachhochschule Vorarlberg (alphanumeric, German) style
  • Die Bachelorarbeit (Samac et al.) (note, German) style
  • Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons style
  • Harvard - Staffordshire University style
  • Pediatric Anesthesia style
  • Health Economics, Policy and Law style
  • Conservation Physiology style
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology style
  • Histoire & Mesure (French) style
  • Plant Physiology style
  • Population, Space and Place style
  • Human Reproduction Update style
  • Copernicus Publications style
  • Journal of the Association for Information Systems style
  • Quaderni degli Avogadro Colloquia style
  • Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology style
  • Institute of Physics (Harvard) style
  • Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy style
  • Revista de Biología Tropical (International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation) style
  • Harvard - University of Technology, Sydney style
  • Journal of Investigative Dermatology style
  • ICES Journal of Marine Science style
  • Harvard - Anglia Ruskin University style
  • Elsevier Vancouver style
  • Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing style
  • Journal of Zoology style
  • International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry style
  • Indian Journal of Medical Research style
  • Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering style
  • Séminaire Saint-Sulpice - Ecole Théologie (French) style
  • Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry style
  • History of the Human Sciences style
  • History and Theory style
  • Journal of Dental Research style
  • Springer Physics (numeric, brackets) style
  • DIN 1505-2 (author-date, German) style
  • Diplo style
  • Drug Testing and Analysis style
  • International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics style
  • Journal of Neurosurgery style
  • France (tous les auteurs, auteur-date, French) style
  • Genetics style
  • Early Medieval Europe style
  • Forensic Science Review style
  • Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association style
  • Lethaia style
  • Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation 7th edition (McGill Guide) style
  • Journal of Perinatal Medicine style
  • Human Brain Mapping style
  • Écoscience style
  • Environmental Chemistry style
  • Medical History style
  • Methods of Information in Medicine style
  • Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences Proceedings style
  • Institut national de la recherche scientifique - Sciences sociales (author-date, French) style
  • Infoclio (German - Switzerland) style
  • Information Systems Research style
  • Modern Humanities Research Association 3rd edition (author-date) style
  • Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Recht Berlin (German) style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, English) style
  • International Labour Organization style
  • Journal of Separation Science style
  • European Society of Cardiology style
  • Modern Language Association 7th edition (with URL) style
  • Freshwater Science style
  • Harvard - Cardiff University style
  • Journal of the American Association of Laboratory Animal Science style
  • Evolution style
  • Flavour and Fragrance Journal style
  • HAND style
  • Harvard - Oxford Brookes University style
  • Springer SocPsych (numeric, brackets) style
  • Harvard - Durham University Business School style
  • Journal of The Electrochemical Society style
  • Journal of Applied Ecology style
  • Interdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für Technologie und Lernen (German) style
  • Molecular Psychiatry (letters to the editor) style
  • Les Journées de la Recherche Avicole (French) style
  • Journal of European Public Policy style
  • Free Radical Biology & Medicine style
  • Journal of the American Society of Nephrology style
  • Multiple Sclerosis Journal style
  • The Journal of Physiology style
  • Ekonomie a Management (Czech) style
  • Frontiers medical journals style
  • Hydrobiologia style
  • International Journal of Cancer style
  • NeuroReport style
  • Organization Science style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, Slovak) style
  • Elsevier Harvard (with titles) style
  • FOLD&R (Fasti On Line Documents & Research) style
  • International Journal of Climatology style
  • International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health style
  • Harvard - Institut für Praxisforschung (Bahr & Frackmann) (German) style
  • France (auteurs et al., auteur-date, French) style
  • G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics style
  • Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A style
  • The Open University - A251 - Arts Course style
  • Harvard - Leeds Metropolitan University style
  • Medical Physics style
  • Mineralogical Magazine style
  • Harvard - King's College London style
  • Journal of Finance style
  • Thomson Reuters - Legal, Tax & Accounting Australia style
  • Harvard - University of Cape Town style
  • Molecular Microbiology style
  • Harvard - University of West London style
  • Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery style
  • PAIN style
  • Palaeontology style
  • Journal of Transport Geography style
  • Human Pathology style
  • Interaction Design & Architecture(s) style
  • International Journal of Exercise Science style
  • Pediatric Allergy and Immunology style
  • Geopolitics style
  • Harvard - AGPS (Australia) style
  • Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine style
  • Periodontology 2000 style
  • International Organization style
  • Nature Neuroscience (brief communications) style
  • Harvard - Imperial College London style
  • Harvard - University of Birmingham style
  • Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie (German) style
  • Journal of Field Ornithology style
  • Plant Pathology style
  • ProInflow (note, Czech) style
  • Gastroenterology style
  • Genome Biology and Evolution style
  • Investigative Radiology style
  • International Journal of Wildland Fire style
  • Public Health Nutrition style
  • Journal of Food Protection style
  • Institute of Physics (numeric) style
  • Harvard - London South Bank University style
  • Human Resource Management Journal style
  • Human Mutation style
  • International Journal of Audiology style
  • Language style
  • Modern Humanities Research Association 3rd edition (note with bibliography) style
  • International Microbiology style
  • Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery style
  • Immunological Reviews style
  • Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research style
  • Journal of Roman Archaeology (B) style
  • Harvard - University of Kent style
  • Russian GOST R 7.0.5-2008 (Russian) style
  • Invertebrate Biology style
  • Modern Language Association 7th edition (German/Deutsch) style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, French) style
  • Journal of Molecular Endocrinology style
  • Harvard - Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador (Spanish) style
  • Infoclio (petites majuscules, French) style
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America style
  • SAGE Harvard style
  • Journal of Social Archaeology style
  • Radiology style
  • Reproduction style
  • Harvard - University of Greenwich style
  • International Conference on Information Systems Development style
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell style
  • Harvard - University of the West of England (Bristol) style
  • Harvard - University of Leeds style
  • Journal of Neurophysiology style
  • Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board style
  • Nature Publishing Group Vancouver style
  • Hong Kong Journal of Radiology style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, Czech) style
  • Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology style
  • Journal of Archaeological Research style
  • Human-Wildlife Interactions style
  • Royal Society of Chemistry style
  • Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health style
  • Veterinary Medicine Austria (Wiener Tierärztliche Monatsschrift) style
  • ISO-690 (note, no abstract, French) style
  • Journalistica (Danish) style
  • Invertebrate Systematics style
  • Society of Automotive Engineers Technical Papers (numeric) style
  • Journal of Evolutionary Biology style
  • Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound style
  • Karger journals style
  • Kritische Ausgabe (German) style
  • International Journal of Electronic Commerce style
  • Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases style

Remember...You must put your italics,capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Referencing guidance

Introduction to referencing

If you are new to referencing read the introduction to referencing.

Missing details (no author, no date, no place of publication, etc)

Note: Always try your best to find missing information, for instance, by searching online for the publishing organisation. Where it is missing, indicate that it is a deliberate omission, as in the examples below.

My source doesn't specify an author

If there is no author given, use Anon.

My information has no date of publication/creation

If no date of publication/creation can be identified, use (no date) in the reference, and refer to only the author/creator in the in-text citation.

My source doesn't have a place of publication

If there is no place of publication given, use (no place). 

Referencing something not listed in the A-Z below

If possible, try to find something similar in the A-Z and use your judgement in applying the same formatting rules.

Refer to (cite) a work in your text

See how to refer to (cite) a work in your text for citing someone's work in a number of ways:

  • Refer to their work
  • Refer to the author by name
  • Refer to two or three authors
  • Refer to four or more authors
  • Refer to multiple works at the same time
  • Refer to multiple works of an author published in the same year
  • Refer to a work without a given author

Refer to a work you haven't read that has been referred to in another work that you have read (secondary referencing)

You may wish to cite a work you haven't read that has been referred to in another work that you have read.

In this case you should cite the primary source (the unread work) and the secondary source (the read work) in your text. 

However, in your reference list/bibliography, you should just reference the secondary source.

Example: Rowley (1991) cites the work of Melack and Thompson (1971), who developed the McGill Archaeology questionnaire.
Example: Melack and Thompson (1971, cited by Rowley 1991) developed the McGill Archaeology questionnaire.
Example: Rowley (1991, citing Melack and Thompson 1971) refers to the McGill Archaeology questionnaire.

In these examples, the list of references would only contain the work by Rowley.

Recommendation:secondary referencing should be avoided if at all possible. The author may be citing the primary reference because of their own interpretation of its relevance, possibly in quite a different context. We recommend you read the primary source for yourself to ensure its relevance to your particular purpose.

Quote or paraphrase (reword) an author's work

Quote an author's work

General advice on how to format quotations in your assignment (includes when to use quotation marks).

Include the page number(s) of the quote in your citation.

Example: "Developments in information technology have a direct impact on healthcare, through decision support systems". (Robinson, 2012, p.32).
Example: As Smith states (2013, p.58), "referencing is more than just placing the right comma and the right brackets in the right place!".

Note on page numbers: 

  • A 'p.' is used when a single page is being quoted or referred to. Eg p.67.
  • A 'pp. ' is used when multiple pages are being quoted or referred to. Eg pp. 102-167. When using 'pp.' you need to add a space  afterwards before the number.
  • If the work has no page numbers (for example, videos and most websites) the page number can be omitted. 

Paraphrase (reword) an author's work

Paraphrasing is when you reword someone else’s written or spoken work.

You may find you need to do this when you want to express a thought or idea with greater clarity.

If you paraphrase you must acknowledge your source otherwise you are guilty of plagiarism, ie passing off someone else's work as your own.

Tutorial: visit the study skills: plagiarism pages to learn how to paraphrase correctly.

Examples

Original text: Descartes introduces the possibility that the world is controlled by a malicious demon who has employed all his energies to deceive him (Lu, 1997, p.156).

Paraphrase example: Descartes suggests that the evil power who rules the world may be attempting to mislead him (Lu, 1997).

Combination of paraphrase and quotation example: Descartes suggests that the evil power who rules the world may be using "all his energies to deceive him" (Lu, 1997, p.156).

Note on page numbers: There is no need to provide a page reference in the in-text citation unless you are including a direct quotation.

(These examples are, in part, courtesy of the Hamilton College Nesbitt-Johnston Writing Center 2007).

Referencing confidential material

You may need to reference confidential material - for example, if you have access to an organisation’s intranet whilst on placement and need to cite some of their documents. In order to protect the identity of the organisation, it is important you anonymise the information. If in doubt about whether to include material, seek guidance from the relevant module leader.

How to format your reference

[Anonymised body]. (Year) Anonymised Title (Use square brackets for any part of the title that is anonymised). Location: [Anonymised publisher].

Example: [Placement Location]. (2013) The Use of Do Not Resuscitate Orders: Older People with Dementia. Bristol: [Placement Provider].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Discussion took place regarding the local policy [Placement Location, 2013]

Further advice on citing

What are you trying to reference?

Most popular: books,  journal articles, films, television programmes, images and illustrations, official publications, web pages.

Acts of Parliament (statutes)

Acts of Parliament (statutes) pre-1963 (print format)

How to format your reference

Short Title of Act and Year (Regnal year and abbreviated Name of Sovereign, chapter number).

Example:The Public Libraries Act 1850 (13 & 14 Vict., chapter 65).

Example of referring to (citing) a work in your text

Example: Within The Public Libraries Act 1850 (13 & 14 Vict., chapter 65) it is stated that...

Further advice on citing

Acts of Parliament (statutes) pre-1963 (electronic format)

How to format your reference

Short Title of Act and Year [online] (Regnal year and abbreviated Name of Sovereign, chapter number). Name of website. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example:The Public Libraries Act 1850 [online] (13 & 14 Vict., chapter 65). Westlaw. Available from: http://www.westlaw.com/ [Accessed 20 November 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work in your text

Example: Within The Public Libraries Act 1850 (13 & 14 Vict., chapter 65) it is stated that...

Further advice on citing

Acts of Parliament (statutes) post-1963 (print format)

How to format your reference

Name of Act. Chapter number. (Year of publication) Place of publication: Publisher.

Example:Football (Disorder) Act 2000. Chapter 25.(2000) London: The Stationery Office.

Example of referring to (citing) a work in your text

Example: Following the introduction of the Football (Disorder) Act (2000)...

Further advice on citing

Acts of Parliament (statutes) post-1963 (electronic format)

How to format your reference

Name of Act [online]. Chapter number. (Year of publication) Name of website. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example:Football (Disorder) Act 2000 [online]. Chapter 25. (2000) Westlaw UK. Available from: http://www.westlaw.co.uk/ [Accessed 21 November 2010].
Example:Human Rights Act 1998 [online]. Chapter 42. (1998) Westlaw UK. Available from: http://www.westlaw.co.uk/ [Accessed 27 November 2014].

Example of referring to (citing) a work in your text

Example: Following the introduction of the Football (Disorder) Act (2000)...
Example: The court must have regard to any relevant privacy code when considering material that a respondent claims to be "journalistic, literary or artistic material" (Human Rights Act 1998, s. 12(4)(b)).

Further advice on citing

Art, works of

Images of works of art

(eg within printed texts or in galleries or institutions)

See images and illustrations.

Works of art in a gallery or institution

(eg objects, artefacts, paintings and drawings, installations, etc.)

How to format your reference

Artist surname, initials. (Date of creation) Title of the Work [medium]. At: Geographic location of where the work is housed: institution or collection that houses the work.

Example: Hepworth, B. (1968) Hollow Form with Inner Form [bronze sculpture]. At: Copenhagen: British Embassy.
Example: Wood, T. (1993) Alan Bennett [painting]. At: London: National Portrait Gallery.
Example: Abbott, B. (c.1958) Transformation of Energy [gelatin silver print]. At: Ottawa: National Gallery of Canada.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Hepworth’s Hollow Form with Inner Form demonstrates the artist’s abstract work (1968).
Example: Abbott’s work, Transformation of Energy, (1958) is displayed in a simple wooden frame.

Further advice on citing

Blogs

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of the blog entry. Title of the Blog [blog]. DD Month of posted message (if known). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example 1: Rogers, S. (2010) Local council spending over £500: full list of who has published what so far. Data Blog [blog]. 10 September. Available from: http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2010/sep/10/local-council-spending-over-500-list [Accessed 13 September 2010].
Example 2: Howard, E. (2010) Seconds. Only the Cinema [blog]. 22 July. Available from: http://seul-le-cinema.blogspot.com/2010/07/seconds.html [Accessed 13 September 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example 1: Rogers (2010) explored the spending culture...
Example 2: In a review of the film (Howard, 2010) it was noted that...

Further advice on citing

Book chapters

Note: the author of the chapter and the author or editor of the book may be the same person or they may be different. The year of the chapter and the year of the book may be the same or they may be different.

Print format

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication of chapter if specified) Book chapter title. In: Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers.

Note: You must put your italics,capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example 1: Naimark, M. (2003) Sensory anomalies. In: Laurel, B., ed., (2003) Design Research Methods and Perspectives. Cambridge: The MIT Press, pp. 109-117.
Example 2: Ayres, A. (1982) Bulbs: techniques. In: Ayres, A., ed., (1988) Gardening from Which? Guide to Successful Propagation. London: Consumers' Association, pp. 67-68.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example 1: Ayres (1982) explains that the growing season...
Example 2: Naimark (2003) identified that...

Further advice on citing

Multi-volume works

How to format your reference

If part of a multi-volume work, add after the title of the book: Vol. XX, Subtitle (if present).

Example: Hoiberg, A.J. and Long, E.G. (1982) Roofing materials. In: Grayson, M. and Eckroth, D.V., eds., (1982) Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology: Vol. 20, Refractories to Silk. New York: John Wiley, pp. 320-336.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Slate is one of the most effective materials (Hoiberg and Long, 1982)...

Further advice on citing

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Book chapter title. In: Author surname, initials., ed. (if applicable) (Year of publication) Title of Book [online]. Place of publication: Publisher, page numbers. [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: You must put your italics,capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Westmoreland, L. (2000) Taking the flak: operational policing, fear and violence. In: Lee-Treweek, G. and Linkogle, S., eds. (2000) Danger in the Field: Risk and Social Research [online]. London: Routledge, pp. 26-42. [Accessed 11 August 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Westmoreland's statement that policing in the UK is becoming "increasingly problematic" can be challenged (2000, p.75).

Further advice on citing

Digital repositories

How to format your reference

Chapter author surname, initials. (Year of contribution) Chapter title. In: Book editor/author surname, editor/author initials. (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher (if stated). Name of Digital Repository [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Carel, H. (2011) Nursing and medicine. In: Overgaard, S. and Luft, S., eds. (2011) Routledge Companion to Phenomenology. London: Routledge. UWE Research Repository [online]. Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/11364/ [Accessed 10 January 2011].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Carel (2011) states that...

Further advice on citing

Books

Books

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title. Edition (if not the first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Note: You must put your italics,capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Pearson, A., Field, J., Ford, D. and Jordan, Z. (2007) Evidence-Based Clinical Practice in Nursing and Health Care: Assimilating Research, Experience and Expertise. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

UWE Harvard reference builder

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The need for care and guidance (Pearson et al., 2007) is evident...
Example: As Pearson et al. states (2007, p.72), "The basis of evidence-based practice is, of course, evidence."

Further advice on citing

Books, reprint editions

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of first publication) Title. Reprint. Place of publication: Publisher, Year reprint published.

Note: You must put your italics,capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Cheyne, G. (1724) An Essay of Health and Long Life. Reprint. London: Doddington Press, 1977.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: In his essay, Cheyne (1724) refers to the use of herbal remedies.

Further advice on citing

Books, translations

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication of the translation). Title. Translated from the [language] by First name Last name. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Note: You must put your italics,capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Dostoevsky, F.M. (1987) Crime and Punishment. Translated from the Russian by Jessie Coulson. London: Hamlyn.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: This brings about Raskolnikov’s dilemma (Dostoevsky, 1987).

Further advice on citing

Multi-volume books

How to format your reference

For multi-volume work, add (X vols.) after title.

Example: Beebe, R. and Myers, J.C. (2011) Paramedic Professional (3 vols.) London: Cengage.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: As Beebe and Myers explain (2011)...

Further advice on citing

Anthologies

How to format your reference

Example: Boxill, J., ed. (2003) Sports Ethics: an Anthology. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: A change in behaviour has been demonstrated (Boxill, 2003)...

Further advice on citing

Electronic books

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title [online]. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher. [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: You must put your italics,capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Williams, J. (2007) 50 Facts that Should Change the World [online]. Revised ed. London: Icon Books. [Accessed 26 July 2011].

UWE Harvard reference builder

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Regarding the Aids pandemic “African nations are the worst hit at present” (Williams, 2007, p.9).

Further advice on citing

Electronic book devices (eg Kindle)

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title [online]. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Note: You must put your italics,capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Williams, J. (2011) 50 Facts that Should Change the World [online]. Kindle ed. London: Icon Books.

Note: How to format your reference as for an electronic book, but state ‘no page’ if there are no page numbers, or if the page numbers move depending on the size of the screen/text. There is also no need to add the Accessed Date to the reference.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Regarding the Aids pandemic “African nations are the worst hit at present” (Williams, 2011, no page).

Further advice on citing

Electronic reference book (including dictionaries)

How to format your reference

Note: many electronic reference books are constantly added to, therefore there may not be a date of publication for the book as a whole. Often there is a year of publication for a chapter, so this should be included in the reference.

Example: Levinton, J.S. (2005) Macroevolution: overview. In: John Wiley & Sons. Encyclopedia of Life Sciences [online]. [Accessed 19 November 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Levinton (2005, p.1) notes that “the only current scale that can be readily used to make macroevolutionary comparisons is the familiar taxonomic hierarchy”.

Further advice on citing

Books in digital repositories

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year) Title. Place of publication: Publisher (if stated). Name of Digital Repository [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: You must put your italics,capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Sinnett, D. (2006) Best Practice Guidance for Land Regeneration Note 9: Maximising Biodiversity. Farnham, Surrey: Forest Research. UWE Research Repository [online]. Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk [Accessed 19 November 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Methods of ensuring biodiversity have been researched (Sinnett, 2006)...

Further advice on citing

Censuses

Print format

How to format your reference

'Name of person' (year of census) Details of Census. Public Record Office: Piece number, folio number, page number.

Electronic format

How to format your reference

'Name of person' (year of census) Details of Census. Public Record Office: Piece number, folio number, page number [online]. Name of website (Year of last update). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: 'Edmund Hird' (1881) Census Return for Salisbury Road, Biddlescombe, St Paul's Sub-district, Herefordshire [online]. Public Record Office: PRO SH8/5628, folio 654, p.22. Ancestry (2010). Available from: http://www.ancestry.co.uk [Accessed 06 September 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Hird was certainly present in the area at that time ('Edmund Hird' 1881).

Further advice on citing

Cochrane reviews

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of the review. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [online]. (Part no.). [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Cahill, K., Stevens, S., Perera, R. and Lancaster, T. (2013) Pharmacological interventions for smoking cessation: an overview and network meta-analysis. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews [online]. (5). [Accessed 26 March 2014].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Cahill et al. (2013) reach the conclusion that...

Further advice on citing

Conference papers and proceedings

Conference papers

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of conference paper/contribution. In: Editor Surname, initials., ed. Title of Conference Proceedings. Place of conference, date of conference. Place of publication (if known): Publisher, page numbers.

Example 1: Silver, K. (1989) Electronic mail: the new way to communicate. In: Raitt, D.I., ed. 9th International Information Meeting. London, 3-5 December 1988. Oxford: Learned Information, pp. 323-330.
Example 2: Tierney, T. (2008) Network morphologies. In: Kudless, A., Oxman, N. and Swackhamer, M., eds. Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 15-17 November 2008. ACADIA, pp. 230-237.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example 1: Silver's research (1989) has since been expanded...

 

Example 2: The network requirements stated by Tierney (2008), show that...

Further advice on citing

Conference proceedings

How to format your reference

Editor surname, initials., ed. (Year of publication) Title of Conference Proceedings, Place of Conference, DD Month YYYY of conference. Place of publication (if known): Publisher.

Example: Kudless, A., Oxman, N. and Swackhamer, N., eds. (2008) Silicon + Skin: Biological Processes and Computation: Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the Association for Computer Aided Design in Architecture (ACADIA). University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, 15-17 November 2008. ACADIA.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The conference brought together a global panel (Kudless, Oxman and Swackhamer, 2008) to discuss …

Further advice on citing

Conference proceedings, published on the Internet

How to format your reference

Editor surname, initials., ed. (Year of publication) Title of Conference Proceedings [online], Place of Conference, DD Month YYYY of conference. Publisher. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Association for Computing Machinery, Inc., ed. (2009) WWW2009: The 18th International World Wide Web Conference [online]. Municipal Conference Centre, Madrid, 20-22 April 2009. Association for Computing Machinery. Available from: http://www.www2009.org/proceedings/main.html [Accessed 11 August 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: With sessions on topics from data mining to social media, The 18th International World Wide Web Conference (Association for Computing Machinery, 2009) covered a multitude...

Further advice on citing

Conference papers in digital repositories

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (year) Title of Paper, Title of Conference, Organisation or Company, Location, date of conference. Name of Digital Repository [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Wharton, R. and Pollard, K. (2010) Sessional GPs, Primary Care in Bristol, Bristol PCT, Eastwood Park, 6 July 2010. UWE Research Repository [online]. Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/11236/ [Accessed 19 October 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: A recent conference explored this concept (Wharton and Pollard, 2010)...

Further advice on citing

Datasets

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of data, Title of Database (version) [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center (2008) Geometric and seismological data, Global Change Master Directory (2008 version) [online]. Available from: http://gcmd.nasa.gov [Accessed 15 October 2008].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The data show the impact of seismological activity (NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, 2008).

Further advice on citing

Diagrams, tables, and graphs

How to format your reference

Note: reference where you located the diagram, table, or graph, eg for a graph in a book give the book details.

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of Book [diagram/table/graph]. Place of publication: Publisher, page number or figure number for graph.

Example: Wendell, P. and Roca, B. (2001) Public Housing Statistics [graph]. Bristol: Bristol City Council, p. 29.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Wendell and Roca highlight that the number of council properties available to inhabitants of Bristol declined by 30% between 1975 and 1999 (2001).

Further advice on citing

Exhibition catalogues

Note: to reference specific images in an exhibition catalogue, see images and illustrations. To reference specific works of art (not from a printed source), see art, works of.

Where the author or editor is known

How to format your reference

Author/editor surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Harwood, L. (2002) Inspired by Italy: Dutch Landscape Paintings 1600-1700. London: Dulwich Picture Gallery.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Harwood asserts that "paintings from the first half of the 1660s include fanciful visions of the Italian terrain" (2002, p.165).

Further advice on citing

Where the author or editor is unknown

How to format your reference

Gallery (Year of publication) Title. Edition (if not first edition). Place of publication: Publisher or gallery.

Example: Kettle’s Yard (1998) Paved with Gold. Cambridge: Kettle’s Yard.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: John Riddy observes that "the photographs contain subtle convergences of time and incident with acutely observed details that act like a pinprick" (Kettle’s Yard, 1998, p.34).

Further advice on citing

Films and videos

Films and videos on DVD

How to format your reference

Title of Film (Year of release) [format]. Directed by Director’s Name. Country of distribution: Distribution company.

Example:This is England (2006) [DVD]. Directed by Shane Meadows. UK: Optimum Home Releasing.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example:This is England (2006) contains comedic moments such as when Smell says “You might look about four, but you kiss like a forty year old!”

Note: there is no need to reference dialogue from films provided that the film itself is referenced, as it is usually clear that the dialogue has been taken from the film. Therefore, the in-text citation would only need to be included the first time the film is mentioned.

Further advice on citing

DVD extras

How to format your reference (eg directors' commentaries on DVDs)

Director/commentator surname, initials. (Year) Director/commentator's commentary, Title of Film. [DVD]. Place of distribution: Distribution company.

Example: Meadows, S. (2007) Director's commentary, This is England. [DVD]. Leeds: Screen Yorkshire.

How to format your reference (interviews with directors of films)

Surname, initials of person interviewed (Year of the interview) Title of the interview. Interviewed by name of interviewer. Title of film. [DVD]. Place of distribution: Distribution company.

Example: Haneke, M. (1997) Interview with M. Haneke. Interviewed by M. Norroy. Funny Games [DVD]. M6 Vidéo.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: In an interview about Funny Games, Haneke (1997) said “People don’t like to be confronted with reality. They like to be confronted with a consumable reality.”

Further advice on citing

Films viewed on the Internet

How to format your reference

Title of film (Year of release) [online]. Directed by Directors name. Country of distribution: Distribution company. Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: This is England (2006) [online]. Directed by Shane Meadows. UK: Optimum Home Releasing. Available from http://www.bbc.co.uk/iplayer/ [Accessed 27 July 2011].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example:This is England (2006) contains comedic moments such as when Smell says “You might look about four, but you kiss like a forty year old!”

Further advice on citing

Videos viewed on the Internet

How to format your reference

Author* surname, initials. (Year of posting) Title of the video. Title of the Website [video]. DD Month of posting (if known). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

* name of the person posting the video

Example: International News 24/7 (2010). France faces strikes and protests over pension reform. YouTube [video]. 07 September. Available from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O_S6mldSB9k [Accessed 13 September 2010].
Example: 5minTravel (2010) Visit New York's public library. Dailymotion [video]. 08 July. Available from: http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xecgxi_visit-new-york-s-public-library_travel [Accessed 13 September 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The grandeur of the building can be seen here (5minTravel, 2010).

Further advice on citing

Films and videos downloaded

How to format your reference

Author/artist/director's surname, Author/artist/director's initials. (Year of publication) Title of the File/Song/Film. Title of the internet website [online]. Available from: URL of the web page [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Meadows, S. (2006) This is England. Sony Entertainment Network [online]. Available from: http://www.sonyentertainmentnetwork.com/ [Accessed 06 December 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example:This is England (2006) contains comedic moments such as when Smell says “You might look about four, but you kiss like a forty year old!”

Further advice on citing

Films and videos viewed on television

See television

House of Commons/Lords papers

Print format

How to format your reference

Parliament. Name of House. Name of Committee (if applies) (Year of publication) Title. Place of publication: Publisher. (HC/HL YYYY/YYYY paper number).

Note: House of Lords paper number should appear between round brackets.

House of Commons example: Parliament. House of Commons (1999) Criminal Justice: Working Together, Session 1999-2000. London: The Stationery Office. (HC 1999-2000 29).
House of Lords example: Parliament. House of Lords (1999) Electricity from Renewables: First Report from the Select Committee on the European Union. London: The Stationery Office. (HL 1999-2000 (18)).

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The renewable energies might offer an alternative to the fossil and the nuclear options (Parliament. House of Lords, 1999).

Note: It is important to avoid ambiguity in order for your reader to be able to link your in-text citation to the full reference you are providing in your reference list. In most cases a brief citation as above will be sufficient to link to the appropriate report. However, if you are citing more than one House of Lords report published in 1999, it would be necessary to distinguish between the reports referring to a brief title in your main text. For example: According to the Electricity from Renewals report (1999)...

Further advice on citing

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Parliament. Name of House. Name of Committee (if applies) (Year of publication) Title [online]. Place of publication: Publisher. (HC/HL YYYY/YYYY (session's year if applicable) paper number). Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: House of Lords paper number should appear between round brackets.

House of Commons example: Parliament. House of Commons (2007) Response to Sir Kevin Tebbit's Review of the Management and Services of the House of Commons [online]. London: The Stationery Office. (HC 193). Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200708/cmselect/cmcomm/193/193.pdf [Accessed 20 July 2010].
House of Lords example: Parliament. House of Lords. Select Committee on Economic Affairs (2010) Response to Report on Private Finance Projects and Off Balance Sheet Debt: Second Report [online]. London: The Stationery Office Limited. (HL 2009/2010 (114)). Available from: http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/ld200910/ldselect/ldeconaf/114/114.pdf [Accessed 11 January 2011].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: According to the Response to Sir Kevin Tebbit’s Review of the Management and Services of the House of Commons, “The Members Estimate Audit Committee, being a sub-committee of a committee of the House, could not have an external Chairman without a decision of the House” (Parliament. House of Commons, 2007).

Note: It is important to avoid ambiguity in order for your reader to be able to link your in text citation to the full reference you are providing in your reference list. In most cases a brief citation as above will be sufficient to link to the appropriate report. However, if you are citing more than one House of Commons report published in 2007, it would be necessary to distinguish between the reports referring to a brief title in your main text. For example: According to the Response to Sir Kevin Tebbit's Review (2007), ...

Further advice on citing

Images and illustrations

See also photographs and art, works of

Image taken from another work (eg reproduced in an exhibition catalogue or book)

Note: If the image is taken from another work (eg reproduced in an exhibition catalogue or book) it should be cited as part of that book (print).

How to format your reference

Artist surname, initials. (Date of creation) Title of work [medium]. In: Publication author surname, initials. Title of Publication. Place of publication: publisher, date, page number.

Example: Edgerton, H. (1957) Milk drop coronet [photograph] In: Thomas, A. (1998) Beauty of Another Order: Photography in Science. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, p.183.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The photograph shows the flower in very close detail (Edgerton, 1957).

Further advice on citing

Images accessed electronically

How to format your reference

Artist surname, initials. (Date of creation), Title of the Work [medium]. At: place where the work is housed: institution or collection that houses the work [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Turner, J.M.W. (c.1825-30) Sunrise [watercolour on paper]. At: London: Tate Britain [online]. Available from: http://www.tate.org.uk [Accessed 19 December 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Turner’s Sunrise (1825-30) is considered one of the artist’s greatest watercolours.

Further advice on citing

Interviews

Interview on the Internet

How to format your reference

Surname of person interviewed, initials. (Year of interview) Title of the interview (if any). Interview with interviewee’s name OR Interview by interviewer’s name. Title of Publication or Broadcast, DD Month [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Blair, T. (2007) The Tony Blair interview with Andrew Marr. Interview with Tony Blair. Andrew Marr Show, 05 September [online]. Available from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b00tn4fw#broadcasts [Accessed 27 November 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The former Labour Prime Minister discussed his time in office with caution (Blair, 2007).

Further advice on citing

Interview on television/radio

How to format your reference

Surname of person interviewed, initials. (Year of broadcast) Title of the interview (if any). Interview with interviewee’s name OR Interview by interviewer’s name. Title of Publication or Broadcast, Name of the channel, DD Month of broadcast.

Example: Blair, T. (2007) The Tony Blair interview with Andrew Marr. Interview with Tony Blair. Andrew Marr Show, BBC One, 05 September.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The former Labour Prime Minister discussed his time in office with caution (Blair, 2007).

Further advice on citing

Published interview or interview conducted for research

Note: in many cases you will need to anonymise the person involved in the interview, for example, in health care situations. You may use terms such as 'subject 1', 'patient x' or 'respondent A'.

How to format your reference

Surname of person interviewed, Initials (year of interview) Title of interview (if any). Interviewed by name of interviewer. Title of the work it is included in, DD, Month [format of interview, eg telephone interview].

Example: Respondent A (2013) Criminal law focus group. Interviewed by Sue Shreeve. Value and Impact of Librarians' Interventions on Student Skills Development (Library Impact and Value For Education and Skills: LIVES) Project: Phase 1 Report, 22 February [focus group].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: With regard to the assignment one student commented that, "I think it just made the process quite tough, but with the help from the Librarians it was manageable" (Respondent A, 2013, p.69).

Further advice on citing

Journal articles

Print format

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of the article. Journal Title. Volume (part/issue), page numbers.

Note: You must put your italics,capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Wilson, D. (1995) Emerging cultures: multiculturalism in Sweden. Scandinavian Studies. 15 (9), pp. 62-64.
Example: Edge, I. and Murphy, V. (1976) New uses of technology in dentistry. British Dental Journal. 8 (3), pp. 450-600.
Example: Langman, S., Smith, J., Athens, D.A. and Gibbs, Y. (2000) Life cycles: manufacturing techniques in the new millennium. Manufacturing Weekly. 15 (1), pp. 12-18.

Note: If the journal is a supplement, include the word ‘Supplement’.

Supplement example: Fletcher, J. (2010) Making use of clinical evidence to provide quality patient care. British Journal of Nursing. 16 (Supplement), pp. 3-17.

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Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Edge and Murphy (1976) discuss the new uses of technology in dentistry in the context of the need for curricula to reflect the changes new technology will bring about to the role of dental staff.

Example: Edge and Murphy (1976, p.14) state that "curricula must reflect the changes brought about by new technology."

Further advice on citing

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year) Title of the article. Journal Title [online]. Volume (part/issue), page numbers if available. [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: You must put your italics,capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Kelly, B., Halford, J. and Boyland, E. (2010) Television food advertising to children: a global perspective. American Journal of Public Health [online]. 100 (9), pp. 1730-1736. [Accessed 10 January 2011].
Example: Grundey, D. (2007) Global marketing ethics: social and emotional-psychological issues in advertising to children. Transformations in Business Economics [online]. 6, pp. 41-64. [Accessed 10 January 2011].

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Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: "The use of colourful characters in children's advertising is problematic" (Grundey, 2007, p.44).

Further advice on citing

Journal articles (pre-publication) in digital repositories

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year) Title of the article. To be published in Name of the publication [preprint]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Note: You must put your italics,capitalisation and punctuation in the right place.

Example: Wharton, R. and Pollard, K. (2010) Sessional GPs: support needed to provide the evidence required for appraisal and evaluation. To be published in Education for Primary Care [preprint]. Available from: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/11236/ [Accessed 19 October 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The use of qualitative data by Wharton and Pollard (2010) has allowed the authors to prove this point.

Further advice on citing

Law reports (cases)

Referring to a case published in a law report

Note: it is important to note that date brackets may be square or round, as in the examples below. Square brackets are necessary if the date is essential to locate the law report in question, eg if there are multiple volumes published within a year. If the volume number for the year of judgment is unique, then use round brackets.

How to format your reference

Name of Parties [Year] Volume Abbreviated form of law report Page number.

Example:West Bromwich Building Society v Wilkinson [2005] 1 WLR 2303.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example...

First time the case is mentioned in the text:

The procedure has been questioned by ... (West Bromwich Building Society v Wilkinson [2005] 1 WLR 2303).

Then:

‘Reasonable Adjustment’ procedures were not found to have been followed in the case West Bromwich Building Society v Wilkinson.

Further advice on citing

Referring directly to the court case, not a publication (neutral citation)

How to format your reference

Name of Parties [year of judgment] Court abbreviation Judgment number for that year [paragraph number in the original court transcript].

Example:Rottman v MPC [2002] UKHL 20 [2].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example...

First time the case is mentioned in the text:

This report (Rottman v MPC [2002] UKHL 20 [2]) has been considered as...

Then:

The case Rottman v MPC has created...

Further advice on citing

Leaflets

How to format your reference

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title. DD Month YYYY of when leaflet was obtained.

Example: North Bristol NHS Trust (2010) Care of Plaster Casts. 11 March 2010.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: North Bristol NHS Trust (2010) provides advice that if the patient experiences pain in the affected limb which is not resolved by over the counter medication, medical advice should be sought.

Further advice on citing

Lectures and lecturers' notes

Lectures

see public communications

Lecturers' notes

How to format your reference

Author/lecturer surname, author/lecturer initials. (Year of posting). Title of item. Name of Academic Module [online]. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Parsons, F. (2010). How to write good references. MA Drama [online]. Available from: https://my.uwe.ac.uk [Accessed 13 Nov 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The referencing guidelines explain the differences (Parsons, 2010).

Further advice on citing

Live performances (concerts, dance, plays)

Live concerts

How to format your reference

Composer surname, initials. (Year of première) Title of Performance. Performed by, conducted by. [Location venue, place. DD Month YYYY seen].

Example: Handel. G.F. (1742) Messiah. Performed by the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, conducted by Brian Wright. [Royal Albert Hall, London. 17 December 2010].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The interpretation of the sacred oratorio Messiah (Handel, 1742) was exquisite.

Further advice on citing

Live dance

How to format your reference

Composer/choreographer surname, initials. (Year of performance) Title of Performance. [Location venue, place. DD Month seen].

Example: Bourne, M. (2011) Cinderella. [Sadler's Wells Theatre, London. 05 January].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: The performance of the ever popular story was refreshing and innovative with the set and costumes based on a Welsh coal mining village (Bourne, 2011).

Further advice on citing

Live plays

How to format your reference

Title of Play by Author first name and surname (Year of performance) Directed by. [Theatre, location of theatre. DD Month seen].

Example:Hamlet by William Shakespeare (2008) Directed by Jonathan Miller. [Tobacco Factory, Bristol. 26 March].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Jamie Ballard as Hamlet brought an energy to the performance not seen in recent years (Hamlet, 2008).

Further advice on citing

Lyrics from a song

How to format your reference

Lyricist surname, initials. (Year of distribution) Title of Song. Place of distribution: Distribution company.

Example: Marsden, G. (1964) Ferry Cross the Mersey. London: Columbia Records.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Marsden (1964) caught something of the spirit of life on Merseyside:

"People around every corner
They seem to smile and say
We don't care what your name is boy
We'll never turn you away".

Further advice on citing

Maps

Print format

How to format your reference

Corporate author or publisher (Year of publication) Title, sheet number, scale. Place of publication: Publisher. (Series).

Example: Ordnance Survey (2006) Bristol & Bath, sheet 172, 1:50,000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey.
Example: Ordnance Survey (1980) Bedfordshire (solid), sheet 10, 1:50,000. Southampton: Ordnance Survey. (Geological Survey of Great Britain [England and Wales]).

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Sites of historic interest are emboldened (Ordnance Survey, 2006).

Further advice on citing

Electronic format

How to format your reference

Corporate author or publisher (Year of publication) Title of Map Section [online]. Scale. Title of online source. Available from: URL [Accessed DD Month YYYY].

Example: Ordnance Survey (1980) Taunton [online]. 1:50,000. Digimap. Available from: http://edina.ac.uk/digimap [Accessed 03 July 2008].

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Taunton city centre has been transformed in the last twenty years. One only has to refer to the map of the time (Ordnance Survey, 1980) to realise the developments which have taken place.

Further advice on citing

Mathematical equations

Print format

How to format your reference

Note: Refer to book or journal reference styles.

Author surname, initials. (Year of publication) Title of the article. Title of Journal. Volume no. (issue no.), page numbers.

Example: Ronson, M. and Antonelli, L. (2004) Statistical data implementation in criminal cases. Mathematical Gazette. 18 (4), pp. 32-56.

Example of referring to (citing) a work within your text

Example: Ronson and Antonelli (2004, p.33) noted that c (c-1) = c2 - c

Further advice on citing

Electronic format

How to format your reference

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